Иностранный язык (английский)
Упражнение 1. Переведите текст на русский язык
The State System of Russia
Russia is a democratic federative law-governed state with a republican form of government. The Russian Federation consists of 89 constituent entities (republics, territories, regions, cities of federal significance, the autonomous region and autonomous areas, which have equal rights). The authorities of the constituent entities have the right to pass laws independently from the federal government.
The laws and other normative legal acts of the subjects of the Russian Federation may not contradict federal laws. The President of the Russian Federation is the head of state. The President of the Russian Federation has the right to suspend the actions of acts of executive bodies of Russian Federation members if they contradict the Constitution of the Russian Federation, federal laws, or the international obligations of the Russian Federation.
State power in the Russian Federation is exercised on the basis of its separation into legislative, executive, and judicial branches. The Federal Assembly - the Parliament of Russia - is the supreme representative and legislative body of the Russian Federation. Executive power belongs to the central and local governments. Justice in the Russian Federation is administered by the courts of law only. Judicial power is effected by means of constitutional, civil, administrative, and criminal judicial proceedings.
The President is elected to office for a term of four years by the citizens of the Russian Federation on the basis of universal, direct and equal suffrage by secret ballot. One and the same person cannot serve as President for more than two terms in succession. The President stops performing his duties ahead of time if he resigns, because of impeachment, or if he cannot continue to carry out his duties due to poor health. Elections of a new President are to take place within three months and in the meantime his duties are acted upon by the Chairman of the Government of the Russian Federation.
The President of the Russian Federation:
1) appoints, with the consent of the State Duma the Chairman of the Government of the Russian Federation, chairs the meetings of the government, accepts the resignation of the government;
2) nominates for approval by the State Duma the Chairman of the Central Bank;
3) nominates judges to the Constitutional Court, Supreme Court, and Court of Arbitration of the Russian Federation, and the Prosecutor-General of the Russian Federation for appointment by the Federation Council;
4) organizes and chairs the Security Council of Russia;
5) is the Supreme Commander-in-Chief of the Armed Forces of the Russian Federation and appoints and dismisses the supreme commanders of the Armed Forces;
6) appoints diplomatic representatives for approval by the Parliament. He confers supreme military and supreme special titles and honorary titles of the state;
7) has the right to show mercy and to decide on issues of citizenship;
8) has the right to introduce the state of emergency throughout the country or in a particular territory within the Russian Federation;
9) dissolves the State Duma;
10) announces elections ahead of time and passes the decision to conduct a referendum on federal issues, etc.
Упражнение 2. Заполните пропуски в предложениях по смыслу с помощью слов, данных ниже
1. Russia is a _____ state.
2. Russia consists of __________.
3. The laws and other normative legal acts of the subjects of the RF may not contradict_______.
4. The Federal Assembly is the supreme representative and ______ body of the RF.
5. The President nominates ________to the Constitutional and Supreme Courts and Court of Arbitration of the RF.
6. The President has the right to introduce the state of ______ throughout the country.
7. Executive power belongs to the central and ________governments.
local, constituent entities, judges, emergency,
federative democratic, federal laws, legislative
Упражнение 3. Ответье на следующие вопросы:
1. What type of state is Russia?
2. Who is the head of the Russian Federation?
3. In which case does the President have the right to suspend acts passed by local executive bodies?
4. What are the three independent branches of state power in Russia?
5. When does the President stop performing his duties ahead of time?
6. What are the basic principles of voting when electing the President?
7. Name 4-5 duties of the President.
Упражнение 4. Прочитайте текст и ответьте на вопросы после него:
At the heart of the English system are two principles of government - limited government and representative government. The idea that government was not all-powerful first appeared in the Magna Carta*, or Great Charter, that King John** signed in 1215 under the threat of civil war. Earlier kings of England had issued charters, making promises to their barons. But these were granted by, not exacted from the king and were very generally phrased. Later the tension between the Kings and the nobility increased. In 1199, 1201, and 1205 John's barons had to be promised their rights. It is, therefore, not surprising that Stephen Langton, archbishop of Canterbury, directed baronial unrest into a demand for a solemn grant of liberties by the king. The document known as the Articles of the Barons was at last agreed upon and became the text from which the final version of the charter was drafted and sealed by John on June 15, 1215.
The Magna Carta established the principle of limited government, in which the power of the monarch, or government, was limited, not absolute. This document provided for protection against unjust punishment and the loss of life, liberty, and property except according to law. It stipulated that no citizen could be punished or kept in prison without a fair trial. Under the Magna Carta, the king agreed that certain taxes could not be levied without popular consent.
Although the Magna Carta was originally intended to protect aristocracy and not the ordinary citizens, it came in time to be regarded as a cornerstone of British liberties, and is one of the oldest written constitutional papers.
1. What were the two basic principles of the English system of government at the beginning of the 13th century? How do you understand these principles?
2. What political situation necessitated the granting of the Magna Carta?
3. What provisions did the Magna Carta contain?
4. Who enjoyed the rights granted by the Magna Carta?