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TABLE OF CONTENTS Lecture 1. LANGUAGE AS A MEANS OF COMMUNICATION. LANGUAGE SYSTEM AND WORLD………………………………………..5 Lecture 2. TRANSLATION THEORY………………..………………………………...10 Lecture 3. LEXICAL PROBLEMS OF TRANSLATION……………………………...28 Lecture 4. GRAMMATICAL PROBLEMS OF TRANSLATION……………………..53 Lecture 5. STYLISTIC PROBLEMS OF TRANSLATION…………………………....65ВСТУП Курс теорії перекладу має на меті підготовку спеціалістів, що володіють знаннями, вміннями й навичками професійного перекладу з англійської мови на р... [читать дальше]

Language system: paradigms and syntagmas

There is a system underlying seemingly random sign of a language. One may note, for instance, that not all the words are compatible with each other; their range of application has certain limitations, and through their lexical meanings and associations they may be united into individual groups. For example, to take an extreme case, in English speech one will never find two articles in a row or in an official obituary an English speaker will never say that the minister pegged out. An evident... [читать дальше]

Language as a means of communication

Thus, a language may be regarded as a specific code intended for information exchange between its users. Indeed, any language resembles a code being a system of interrelated material signs (sounds or letters), various combinations of which stand for various messages . Language grammars and dictionaries may be considered as a kind of Code Books, indicating both the meaningful combinations of signs for a particular language and their meanings. The process of language communication involves... [читать дальше]


PLAN 1. Translation definition. 2. Basic translation theories. 2.1. transformational approach; 2.2. denotative approach; 2.3. communicational approach. 3. Translation ranking. 4. Translation equivalence and equivalents. 5. Types of translation equivalence 6. Levels of equivalence 7. Types of translation 8. Factors influencing the choice of equivalents Translation definition Translation means both a process and a result. In order to explain translation we need to compare the original (source)... [читать дальше]

Translation equivalence and equivalents

Translation equivalence is the key idea of translation. According to A.S.Hornby equivalent means equal in value, amount, volume, etc. The principle of equivalence is based on the mathematical law of transitivity. As applied to translation, equivalencemeans that if a word or word combination of one language (A ) corresponds to certain concept (C ) and a word or word combination of another language (B ) corresponds to the same concept (C ) these words or word combinations are considered... [читать дальше]

Second Type – Partial Correspondence Equivalence

Non-corresponding elements may be lexical, grammatical or stylistical. Equivalence of the second type is usually achieved by means of various transformations: substitution or replacements (both lexical and grammatical), additions and omissions, paraphrasing and compensation. All through the long foreign summer the American tourist abroad has been depressed by the rubber quality of his dollar. Під час тривалого літнього перебування за кордоном американських туристів пригнічувало постійне скорочен... [читать дальше]

Third Type – Situational or Factual Equivalence

The content or sense of the utterance is conveyed by different grammatical and lexical units. Situational equivalence is observed when the same phenomenon is described in a different way because it is seen from a different angle, e.g. The police cleared the streets. Поліція розігнала демонстрацію. Unemployed teenagers are often left without means of gaining food and shelter. Безробітні підлітки часто опиняються без засобів існування. Hold the line. Не вішайте слухавку. The Commonwealth countries... [читать дальше]

Divergences in the semantic structure of words

The semantic structure of words presents a complicated problem as the so-called correlated words of the T languages are far from being identical in this respect. The only exception is some groups of monosemantic words which will be dealt with later. Divergences in the semantic structure of words of the S and T languages are one of the primary cases of lexical transformations. These divergences or dissimilitudes are connected with certain peculiar features of a word or a group of words. Even... [читать дальше]

Contextual Meaning of Polysemantic Words

The so-called contextual meaning is always individual, occasional and context-bound. It lives only in its context and disappears if the context is altered. The contextual meaning of a word is usually semantically richer than the dictionary meaning because of the connections which it arouses. In an atomic war women and children will be the first hostages. Першими жертвами в атомній війні будуть жінки й діти. The dictionary meaning of the word “hostage” is заручник, but in this context it is synon... [читать дальше]

Translation of pseudo-international words

There is a distinct group of words which constitute a special difficulty for the translator, the so-called pseudo-international words. International words are mostly words of Greek, Latin and French origin which have a more or less similar phonetic form in many languages. They express not only scientific, social and political notions but everyday things and notions as well: electronics – электроніка; dynamic – динамічний; calorie – калорія; elegant – eлегантний. These words have become an indisp... [читать дальше]