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B) Explain in English the meanings of the following words and word-combinations;

Magical medicine, evil spirit, substance, magical power, charms, amulets, mystical designs, rituals.

V. Complete the following sentences.

1. The evil spirit driven out because…

2. Gifts and sacrifices might be offered to…

3. The operation is known as trepanning and was…

4. Amulets ward off …

5. Some ritual involved the amputation of…

6. It took many forms, including…

7. Magic was practiced to drive out the evil spirits…

8. The medicine-man came into being to cure…

9. Gifts and sacrifices might be offered to…

10. Sometimes the two were linked together, sometimes…

VI. Make up disjunctive questions

1. Medicine progressed slowly and very painfully along two lines.

2. The medicine-man came into being to cure the mental and physical ills of the people.

3. Gifts and sacrifices might be offered to the appropriate spirit.

4. This operation is known as trepanning.

5. Some rituals involved the amputation of a finger.

VII. Make up alternative questions

1. The skulls of unfortunate mental patients were possibly made into necklaces.

2. It took many forms.

3. Excavations of Stone Age settlements have uncovered skulls.

4. The sufferer had managed to survive the surgery.

5. Magic was practiced to drive out the evil spirits.

UNIT IV

I. Read the story and translate it.

Early developments

As the centuries passed, man gained an elementary knowledge of anatomy from the animals he killed. He traveled great distances on foot and learned about nature. He found a method of counting, using his fingers and toes, invented the wheel and discovered how to grow plants and make pottery. He found that he could cure minor ailments by taking herbs, applying mud plasters, massaging and dieting. More troublesome diseases were treated by magic, bleeding or amputation. The medicine-man was the central figure of the tribe and as it gradually grew larger and larger his importance grew with it.

Between 7000 and 4000 BC, whole civilizations developed from the early tribes. Diseases multiplied in number and variety but only little progress was made in treating them.

Around 3000 BC knowledge gradually increased in the civilizations that were developing in Egypt and Mesopotamia, around the fertile valleys of the rivers Nile and Euphrates. Medicine became the job of specialist physicians who were paid for their work, but who were severely punished, sometimes by death, if the patient received an injury or died.

Medical treatments included fumigation (smoking out the patient through the back passage, mouth and nose), many herbal remedies and the application of animal urine, excreta and powdered bones!

II. Retell it contents in English.

III. Answer the following questions.

1. How did prehistoric people gained knowledge?

2. What methods of treatment did prehistoric people found?

3. What was the role of the medicine-man?

4. When did knowledge gradually increase?

5. Where did knowledge increase?

6. What did medical treatments include?

7. What innovations were made in that time in medicine?

8. How were more troublesome diseases treated?

9. What multiplied in number?

10. Whose job did medicine become?

IV. Complete the following sentences.

1. The prehistoric man gained knowledge…

2. In counting he used…

3. Troublesome diseases were treated…

4. The role of early civilizations in medicine was…

5. Knowledge about medicine gradually increased…

6. Medicine became the job of specialist physicians…

7. Medical treatments included fumigation…

8. Between 7000 and 4000 B.C. whole civilizations…

9. The medicine-man was the central figure of the tribe…

10. Diseases multiplied in number and variety…

IV. a) Make up your own sentences with the following words and word-combinations;

B) Explain in English the meanings of the following words and word-combinations;

To gain, knowledge, to cure, troublesome diseases, tribe, to punish, pay, fertile valleys, herbal remedies, ailments.

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