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Everyone Has Something to Sell

It has been said that everyone lives by selling something. In the light of this statement, teachers live by selling knowledge, philosophers by selling wisdom and priests by selling spiritual comfort. Though it may be possible to measure the value of material goods in terms of money, it is extremely difficult to estimate the true value of services which people perform for us. There are times when we would willingly give everything we possess to save our lives, yet we might drudge paying a surgeon on a high fee for offering us precisely this service. The conditions of society are such that skills have to be paid for the same way that goods are paid for at a shop. Everyone has something to sell.

Thinking: By the People, Not For the People

The people of a country have nothing to gain by an aggressive war. But their minds are so drugged with lies, and so stimulated by appeals to patriotism that they willingly cooperate with unscrupulous leaders who plan wars for their own private ends. Until the people of a country learn to compare the statements of their political leaders with the environment those statements are supposed to represent, and arrive at their own conclusions and act on them, that long will the people of the eighty-odd countries of this world be lured into wars in which they have nothing to gain and almost everything to lose.

Grammar Review

I. Translate the sentences:

  1. The operation was the chief event of the year.
  2. In either event no complications have been observed.
  3. The past year has been an eventful one.
  4. Chain elongation is arrested until these events are completed.
  5. It is not known whether the same events are involved in the release of other bacteriocins from producing cells.
  6. One feature of this system is that chain elongation is arrested until these events have occurred.
  7. It is noteworthy that the same sequence was apparently used in independent revision events.

II. Translate into English:

  1. Определите, пожалуйста, заболевание.
  2. Не объясните ли вы механизм, лежащий в основе этого действия?
  3. Отберите, пожалуйста, нужные образцы.
  4. Не могли бы вы перечислить симптомы данного заболевания?
  5. Скажите, пожалуйста, где напечатана эта статья.
  6. Не могли бы вы рассказать о своей научной работе.

Phrasal Verbs


Give away выдавать замуж, дарить, обнаружить, проговариваться

Give back возвратить, отдать обратно

Give forth объявлять, обнародовать, распускать слух

Give in уступить, сдаваться, вручать

Give off выделять

Give out издавать, распределять, кончаться

Give over передавать, бросать (привычку)

Give under не выдержать

Give up отказываться, сдаваться, бросать

Give way выдержать, обваливаться, уступать дорогу

Make up the sentences of your own using the verbs.

Unit 11

Read and translate the text:


Scientific Progress

Scientific progress has been two-dimensional. First, the range of questions and problems to which science has been applied has been continuously extended. Second, science has continuously increased the efficiency with which inquiry can be conducted. The products of scientific inquiry then are: 1. a body of information and knowledge which enabled us better to control the environment in which we live and 2. a body of procedures which enables us better to this body of information and knowledge.

Science both informs and instructs! The body of information generated by science and the knowledge of how to use it are two products of science. As already indicated, we will not be concerned here with the body of information and knowledge which it has generated: that is not with the specific theories, laws, and facts that have been developed in the various physical, life, and behavioral science. Instead we will be concerned with the procedures by which science generates this body of knowledge, the process of inquiry.

Grammar Review

Expressions to remember:

Full-length paper

Academic address

Roman numerals

To number consecutively

By request

In italics

Editorial communications

Running title

Title page

I. Give Russian equivalents:

1. The public opinion poll conducted on the basis of the latest methods gave positive results.

2. The discovery made and the data obtained were published in “Science News”.

3. The new achievement made in this field of science is of certain value.

4. The statement made concerned a new way of investigating.

5. The given interaction is a result of close communication.

6. He spoke of the results obtained, conclusions made and future plans taken.

7. The realized plans were connected with the experiments carried in the experimental laboratory.

8. The analysis of the poll conducted at the plant seemed rather fruitful.

II. Translate into English:

  1. Ученые узнают о структуре клеток, так как проводят много научных исследований.
  2. По мере того как ученые изучают свойства клеток, они решают важные проблемы.
  3. Благодаря журналам ученые в курсе новых достижений.
  4. Этот обзор охватывает достижения, полученные как российскими, так и иностранными биологами.
  5. В данной статье дается описание применяемых методов.
  6. Статья, написанная для биохимиков, представляет также интерес и для врачей.
  7. В последние годы стало возможным применять новые методы лечения, предложенные нашими исследователями.
  8. Психологи применяют новый метод в качестве комплексного лечения этого расстройства.

“Translator’s false friends”

Translate the sentences using one of the definitions:


1.тесно; 2. непосредственно; 3. тщательно, глубоко; 4. равномерно

It is shown that linear prediction is intimately related to a basic speech synthesis model introduced in chapter 3.

We consider these loci to intimately relate to turbulent separation.

Besides the window effect which is intimately tied to signal processing…

This requires an intimately understanding of the plastic behavior of materials and the implementation of sophisticated theories.

The characteristics of the noise depend intimately on the type of sensor.

… to become intimately mixed with the stack effect.

Unit 12

Read and translate the text:


A Slender Chance

No one could create life in the laboratory. The possibility is vanishingly small that a viable organism can e compounded. Yet that slender chance continues to intrigue some experimenters and occasionally progress is reported. Foe example, a particularly dramatic experiment was described by Miller. He circulated a sterile mixture of a few substances through an electric spark. At the beginning of the experiment the mixture was crystal clear. Within twenty-four hours the condensed liquid turned noticeably pink and after a week it became slightly viscid. Miller had not compounded these substances by controlled chemical synthesis. He merely established a physical environment that favoured their spontaneous generation.

As such experimentation continues there is a minute but growing probability that a structure will eventually appear that feeds on the nutrients in its surroundings and reproduces itself. However improbable the event in a single trial, it becomes increasingly probable as the trials are multiplied. Eventually the event becomes virtually inevitable.

Grammar Review

Eventual – возможный 2. Окончательный, конечный

Eventually – в конечном счете. в результате, в итоге

I. Translate into Russian:

1. He eventually got better.

2. None of these patients eventually developed problems.

3. The final stage of investigation has been eventually reached.

4. The eventual response to the treatment is not as good as might be expected.

5. It will be eventually accepted as an important natural form of check-up.

II. Give Russian equivalents:

  1. His conclusion founded on the latest statistical data was quite right.
  2. They couldn’t agree with his point of view expressed so illogically.
  3. The developing science raises more and more important questions for the further discussion.
  4. To watch the changing world is rather interesting.
  5. Observations being made with the help of special techniques gave different results.
  6. When being studied from all the aspects, the event becomes understandable.
  7. While criticizing the previous theories, he tries to understand their relationships.
  8. Conducting this research he came across some interesting phenomenon.
  9. The data being discussed at the seminar are of particular importance.

Phrasal Verbs


Pass as слыть

Pass away скончаться

Pass by проходить, проезжать

Pass for слыть

Pass on передавать

Pass out терять сознание

Pass over обходить, обойти молчанием

Pass round передать

Pass Up подать, пропустит

Make up the sentences of your own using the verbs.

Unit 13

Read and translate the text:


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