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Ш. LEXICOLOGICAL ASPECTS OF TRANSLATION

As it has been pointed out in chapter I, the process of written or oral translating presents in reality different forms of decoding or transformation which the source language units undergo at the phonetic, morphological or syntactic levels: Cf.: ambition [aembijn] амбіція, geologist геолог, metaphor метафора, participate брати участь, пеgоtiаblе те(той), що піддається погодженню; рученьки beautiful little hands, лісовик (mythology) forest demon, etc. No lingual, i.e., structural or semantic identity have in the target language many English and Ukrainian specifically national notions of lexicon (culturally biased words), which are also to be decoded, i.e., transformed Cf.: Number 10 Downing Street Даунінґ Стріт №10 (резиденція прем'єр-міністра Великої Британії), haggis зварений у жирі овечий кендюх, начинений вівсяною кашею впереміш із посіченими потрохами; кутя cooked peeled wheat, barley or rice mixed with ground poppy seeds, raisins and parceled kernels of nuts, honey and a little boiled water, etc.

Neither are there in the target language direct semantic or structural equivalents for many idioms and stable expressions of the source language. Hence, they must be decoded, i.e., transformed, Cf.: Tom, Dick and Harry перший-ліпший (з), будь-хто (з), to go to the altar одружуватися, виходити заміж; клепки не вистачає nobody home, he has got a screw loose, etc.

A considerable number of other source language units, however, may maintain their lingual form little changed or unchanged in the target language, as in many proper names and genuine internationalisms: Alfred Альфред/Ельфред, Robert Frost Роберт Фрост, Boston Бостон, president президент, affiх афікс, phoneme фонема, motor мотор, cybernetics кібернетика, export експортувати, soc/a/соціальний, nationally національно, etc. Such and the like words are, in fact, not translated in the true sense of the word but turned into the target language in their phonemic (sometimes also in their orthographic) form/structure. These and some other problems, which are of academic interest not only for the beginning translator but also for the teacher constitute the subject-matter of the succeeding chapters of this work.


METHODS AND WAYS OF TRANSLATING VARIOUS PROPER NAMES

There are no finally established rules yet as to how different kinds and types of English proper names should be translated into Ukrainian, though Ukrainian proper names of people and family names are mostly conveyed on the basis of their phonemic structure, i.e., are transliterated in English. E.g.: Антоніна Antonina; Віра Vira; Лаврін Lavrin; Роман Roman; Авраменко Avramenko; Лавріненко Lavrinenko; Панібрат Panibrat; Іван Ivan; Тамара Tamara; Семен Semen; Петро Petro, Саливон Salyvon, etc.

Far from all Ukrainian proper names can be conveyed by way of literal translating, however. This is because some of our vowels and consonants have no equivalent sounds/phonemes in English and must be substituted for approximately similar sounds. Among these Ukrainian sounds and sound combinations are first of all those ones, which are rendered with the help of the letters or letter combinations и, й, ий, ій, я, ю, є, Ї , or partly through the letters ж, щ, х, ч, цand palatalized consonants.

Ukraine as a newly independent state makes efforts to get rid of her former colonial past. One of the ways to assure this internationally was the adoption of the Romanization System which enabled the conveying of our personal names, family names (onomastics) and also all Ukrainian geographical names (toponymy) in accordance with some rules. Their system practically does not contain diacritics, i.e., different signs over or under the letters. The only sign of the kind being the sign ' for palatalization (cf. Щербань Shcherban', Львів L'viv) which is not difficult to add after a letter. This makes the system convenient and assured for direct and unambiguous reconstruction of any Ukrainian name form or word standing for a specifically national notion (реалія). E.g.: kutya or kutia, kobzar, varenyky, etc. The adopted Romanization System will also serve well as an aid to correct pronunciation of Ukrainian proper names by the foreigners, capable of reading the Roman letters, which more or less correctly convey the sounding forms of any Ukrainian name. The adopted Romanization System is internally consistent and based on sound linguistic principles. It is to be strictly observed by the students of foreign languages and the people responsible for its absolute implementation in this country and abroad. This is how the system is presented:


Ukrainian

1. A a

2. Б б

3. В в

4. Г г

5. Ґ Ґ

6. Д д

7. Е е

8. Є є

9. Ж ж

10. З з

11.И и

12. І і

13. Ї ї

14. Й й

15. К к

16. Л л

17. М м

18. Н h

19. O o

20. П п

21. P p

22. С с

23. Т т

24. У у

25. Ф ф

26. Х х

27. Ц ц

28.Ч ч

29. Ш ш

30. Щ щ

31. Ю ю

32. Я я

33. Ь

Romanization

А а

В Ь

V/v W/w

H h

G g

D d

Е е

Ye ye

Zh zh

Z z

Y y

li

Уі/li yi/ii

Y y

K k

L I

M м

N п

О о

Р р

R r

S s

T t

U u

F f

Kh kh

Ts ts

Ch/Tch ch/tch

Sh sh

Shch shch

Yu yu

Ya ya

`


A practical realization of this system can be illustrated on many Ukrainian names with the following substitution of Ukrainian letters (and sounds) for the completely, approximately or similarly corresponding English letters or letter combinations:

/и/ as у : Кирило Kyrylo, Марина Maryna, Микита Mykyta, Бобрик Bobryk, Бровари Brovary, Бобир Bobyr, Винник Vynnyk, Микитенко Mykytenko, Суми Sumy.

/и/as ii , іor yi . The choice of a letter/letter combination in English to Romanize the sound is predetermined by its environment and position in the Ukrainian name/surname. When preceded by a vowel, the sound /j/ is to be conveyed by the letter і(as in «naive»): Заїка Zaika, Мисаїл Mysail, Українка Ukrainka, Зінаїда Zinaida, Турбаї Turbayi /or Turbaii.

When the Ukrainian letter Їinitiates the proper name/surname, the sound expressed by it has to be conveyed through the yiletter combination: Ївга Yivha, їздець Yizdets, їжакевич Yizhakevych.

The voiced /й/ sound is also to be conveyed through the letter у : Йосип Yosyp, Йовенко Yovenko.

Very often the /й/ sound in Ukrainian is used with the preceding /i/ or /и/ sound. When preceded by the /i/ sound it is conveyed in English as iior iy : Андрій Andrii/Andriy, Гулій Hulii/Huliy, Гафійка Hafiika/Hafiyka, Матвійчук Matviichuk/Matviychuk, Павлійчук Pavliichuk/Pavliychuk, etc. When the /й/ sound is preceded by /и/ it is to be conveyed as yi : Горовий Horovyi, Гулий Hulyi, Сірий Siryi, Коломийченко Kolomyichenko, Гнідий Hnidyi.

As to the sounds expressed by the Ukrainian letters я, ю, єthey are to be conveyed through the English letter combinations ya, yu, yerespectively or through ia, iu, ieCf.: ya : Яким Yakym, Ярема Yarema, but: Забіяка Zabiyaka/Zabiaka, Мусіяка Musiyaka/Musiiaka.

The sound expressed through the Ukrainian letter яin the final position of a word or traditional proper name can sometimes be conveyed in English by the iararely yaletter combinations. It is mostly observed in traditional proper names like Марія, Софія, Maria, Sofia, Юлія Yulia, Югославія Yugoslavia, Малазія Malasia, but: Кенія Kenya. Some common in English and Ukrainian proper names and also foreign place names may have йаfor the ialetter combinations as well: Maria Марія/Мерайя, Malaya Малайя.

It is common knowledge that present-day English despite the existence of some less hard consonants like the /I/ after the IiI, /i:/ and /ai/ sounds (cf. little, leave, like, controlling, etc.) is practically devoid of palatalization. As a result, all Ukrainian palatalized consonants usually obtain a hard pronunciation in English: Альвіна Alvina, Бенедь Bened, Василь Vasyl', Близько Vlyzko, Гринь Hryn, Кость Kost; Кусько Kusko, Луцьк Lutsk, Редько Redko. In linguistic papers these and the like proper names, however, may have a sign for palatalization ('): Al'vina, Kost', Red'ko, Bened', Vlyz'ko, Luts'k, Lots', Kozlovs'kyi, Koval', Mel'nyk, etc.

As to the Ukrainian consonant phonemes, which have no direct equivalents in the English language, they can mostly be conveyed through analogous English sounds, sometimes formed by different letter combinations. Thus, the Ukrainian /г/ sound is to be conveyed through the similar though not identical voiceless English /h/ phoneme: Гаврило Havrylo, Григір Hryhir, Гайдай Haidai, Григораш Hryhorash, Громак Hromak, Гмиря Hmyrya. This sound is also observed in such nouns/proper names as hobby гоббі, maharajah магараджа, Hyderabad Гайдерабад, Huxley Гакслі, etc.

The Ukrainian /ж/ phoneme is conveyed with the help of the zhletter combination: Жук Zhuk, Жанна Zhanna, Божій Bozhiy, Журавель, Zhuravel', Жуйхліб Zhuikhlib, Женченко Zhenchenko, Журба Zhurba, Неїжмак Neyizhmak, Вражливий Vrazhlyvyi.

The Ukrainian /x/ sound is conveyed in English through the khletter combination: Лахно Lakhno, Остахів Ostakhiv, Хома Khoma, Химии Khymych, Харків Kharkiv, Ховрах Khovrakh, Охрімчук Okhrimchuk.

As to the similar in the Ukrainian and English languages /ч/ sound it may be conveyed in two ways. Traditionally the letter combinations chor tchalways were and are still used for the purpose: Качанів Kachaniv, Клочко Klochko/Klotchko, Костюченко Kostyuchenko/Kostiutchenko, Кочур Kochur/Kotchur, Чернушенко Chernushenko/Tchernushenko, Чорний Chornyi/Tchornyi. Though the letter combination tch is less and less often used at present.

Similarly with the Ukrainian /шч/ sound which has no equivalent in English. Traditionally it was conveyed in English through the letter combination shch (sh+ch). The Ukrainian proper nouns and especially geographical names and names of public bodies containing щcan be conveyed as follows: Щаденко as Shchadenko, Щербак as Shcherbak, Щедрій as Shchedrii, Безпощадний as Bezposhchadnyi etc.

For all other Ukrainian consonant phonemes there are corresponding letters and letter combinations in English which convey more or less similar sounds, though they may belong in both the languages to the same articulatory zones (labial, dental, alveolar, etc.). For example, the Ukrainian /б/ and /п/ phonemes are substituted for the English plosives /b/ and /p/: Борис Borys, Бойчук Boichuk, Петро Petro, Панібудьласка Panibud'laska. The consonant phonemes /д/,/т/,/н/, In/, Id, Iu/ and their palatalized variants /д'/, /т'/, /н7, /л'/, /с'/, /ц1/ are substituted respectively for the Eng­lish alveolar Id/, /t/, /n/, /I/, Is/, /is/, though the latter, which is com­mon knowledge to everybody, differ greatly by their articulatory char­acteristics from the Ukrainian phonemes. Cf.: Дорош Dorosh, Ткаченко Tkachenko, Німенко Nimenko, Льольо Lyolyo, Ціпко Tsipko, Цвіркун Ts'virkun, Циба Tsyba, Гороть Horot', Ковальчук Koval'chuk, Гаврись Havrys', etc.

Only approximate similarity can also be observed in most cases between the Ukrainian /в/ phoneme which is much closer when used in the initial position to the English /w/ than to its traditional substitute (in translations from the Ukrainian) /v/ phoneme as in the proper nouns like: Володимир Volodymyr, Вовчок Vovchok, Добривечір Dobryvechir, Убийвовк Ubyivovk. But Віль, of course, must be only Will. Consequently Вовченко, Вареник may also be Wowchenko, Warenyk and Вовчок also Wowchok.

When in the position between two vowels or between a vowel and a palatalized consonant, the Ukrainian /в/ sound somewhat re­sembles the English/v/ phoneme, however: Сиваченко Syvachenko, Винниченко Vynnychenko, Яворівський Yavorivskyi, Швайка Shvaika, Швидюк Shvydiuk/ Shvydyuk.

Undoubtedly the closest to the English consonant phonemes are the Ukrainian /к/, /ґ/ and /з/ phonemes. Cf.: Кавун Kavun, Зінаїда Zinaida, Зайченко Zaichenko, Ґудзій Gudziy/Gudzii. But there are no similar substitutes in English for our palatalized /дз'/ sound which will be read by the English native speakers as /dz/ only as in Ґедзь Gedz', Ґудзь Gudz', and others.

There is very little similarity, however, between the Ukrainian vibrant /p/ and the English /r/ phoneme belonging in both these lan­guages to different articulatory zones. Nevertheless the English /r/ is always used in translations of proper names to substitute the Ukrain­ian /p/ and vice versa: Barbara Барбара, Robert Роберт, Rupert Руперт, Роман Roman, Новодворський Novodvors'kyi, Черкасенко Cherkasenko.

The methods of conveying English vowels in Ukrainian are also different. The choice of them and the sphere of their use may be predetermined by some lingual as well as extralingual factors. These are as follows: a) the position of the phoneme in the English word/ proper name; b) the environment of the phoneme; c) the origin of the proper name; d) the tradition (if any) of conveying the name in Ukrain­ian, when the name is common in the two languages e.g. of Biblical origin e.g.: Elias /і'Іаіжз/, Elijah, /I'laid'je/ Ілля (Ілія).

As to the possible substitutes for similar and divergent Eng­lish vowel phonemes, some variants may be suggested in Ukrainian for short monophthongs formed at different tongue positions. The most common/traditional substitutes for English short monophthongs in Ukrainian the following vowel phonemes have to be investigated:

/ж/ for /a/ and lei: Angela Анджела/Енджела, Andy Енді/Анді, Amanda Аманда/Еманда, Patrick Патрік/ Петрік, Allison Еллісон, Аллісон; /Л/ for /а/, /у/ or even /о/: Ulrica Алріка (Ул/ь)ріка, Doug Даг, " Justin Джастін, Sudbury Садбері/Судбері, Ulster Ольстер;

/a/ standing in English for any vowel phoneme in unstressed position can be substituted in Ukrainian for the corresponding vow­els too: Ada Ада, Alaska Аляска, Virginia Вірджінія, Rebekka Ребекка, Theodore Теодор, Salisbury Солзбері;

/о/ for lot: Dolly Доллі, Olive Олів, Oskar Оскар, Oxford Оксфорд;

/і/ for /і/: Iraq Ірак, Isabel Ізабел(а), Isolda/e Ізольда, Islam іслам;

/e/for/e/: Ebrington Ебрінґтон, Eckersl(e)y Екерслі, Edinburgh Едінбург, Eleonora Елеонора, Ellis Ел(л)іс.

It is common knowledge that either of these sounds may also convey other sounds in seemingly the same sounds environment. Cf.: Iden Айден, Ikey Айкі, or: Ede Ід, Eden Іден, English (family name) Інґліш or Енгліш.

Long vowel phonemes in all English proper names like in other words are substituted in Ukrainian for their corresponding short vowel phonemes:

/a:/ for /a/: Art Арт, Bart Барт, Clerke Кларк, Mark Марк, Carnegie Карнеґї, Gaby Габі; but Derby /da:bi/ Дербі;

/о:/for/о/: Allcorn Олкорн, Aubrey Обрі, Austin Остін, Paola Пола, Cornell Корнелл;

/u:/ and sometimes /ju:/ for /у/ю/: Cooper Купер, Judy Джуді, Muriel М'юріел(ь), Oona Уна, Ouse p. Уз, Hecuba Гекуба Purim Пюрім, Rubens Рубенс Uniat Уніат, UNESCO ЮНЕСКО;

/і:/for/і/: Aberdeen Абердін, Celia Сілія, Easton Істон, Eton Ітон, Deakin Дікін;

/э:/ for /e/ or even for /i/: Earl Ерл, Herbert Герберт, Irvin Ервін/ Ірвін; but: Pearl Harbor Перл-Гарбор/Пірл-Гарбор, Burton Бертон, Burma Бірма, Bert Берт, Burch Берч.

English diphthongs are usually substituted for corresponding Ukrainian vowel combinations, though not without exceptions:

/ai/ for /ай/: Brighton Брайтон, Idaho Айдаго, Ike Айк, Mike Майк, Pyke Пайк; but Miami Майамі;

/au / for /ay/: Down Даун, Howard Гауерд, Howell Гауел, Mowgli Мауґлі;

/ei/for/ей/, /a/: Ada Ейда, Mabel Мейбл, Mamei Меймі, Pais­ley Пейзлі;

/oi/for/ой/: Croydon Кройдон, Joyce Джойс, Roy Рой but: Troy Троя, Тоуе Той;

/эй/ for /oy/: Mo Moy, Owen Оуен, Rose Роуз, Snow Сноу, Sofia(Bulgaria) Софія.

Several English proper names containing the diphthong /ou/ have no /oy/ substitution for it in Ukrainian, however: Bruno Бруно, Buffalo Буффало, Toronto Т.оронто, Longfellow Лонгфелло, Рое По, Sophia Софія;

/еэ/ is substituted for/ea/: Ayrshire Ершір, Dalaware Делавар, Fairbanks м.Фербенкс, Gary м. Ґері, but: Ontario Онтаріо, Bulgaria Болгарія;

/ia/ for /і/, /ей/, /ія/: Cheshire Чешір, Madeira о-в Мадейра, Nigeria Нігерія, Victoria Вікторія, Virginia Вірджінія, Julie Джулія, Juliet Джулієт.

It is not always easy to select appropriate Ukrainian substi­tutes for some English consonant phonemes either. That is partly because some consonants may realize their meanings depending on their environment or position in the word (proper name). Besides, the selections of a substitute for an English consonant phoneme, may sometimes be predetermined in Ukrainian by the established tradition: so /p/ is substituted for /т/, /д/ or the sound /з/: Carmarthenshire Кармартеншір, Caruthers Карудерс/Карузерс, Brothers Брад(з)ерс;

/T/ for /т/ or /c/ sometimes /ф/ (in Greek names): Bath м. Бат, Faith Феіт/Феіс, Dartmouth Дартмут, but: Athos Афон, Carthage Карфаген/Картаґен, Korinth Коринф(т).

/N/ for /нг/: Arlington Арлінґтон, Bundung Бандунг", sterling стерлінг", Darlington Дарлінґтон, Long Лонґ, Goulding Ґоулдінґ, Springpark Спрінґпарк;

/Nk/for /hk/: Bronx Бронкс, Sinclair Сінклер, SprinkCnpiHK, Winkie Вінкі;

/I/ for In/ or In'/: Larry Ла/еррі, Lotta Лотта, Noll Нолл, Percival Персівал(ь), Charles Чарльз, William Вільям, Clinton Клінтон, Underhill Андергіл.

Some componental phonemes may have traditionally estab­lished substitution in separate nouns. Thus,

/w/ may be ib/ or /y/: Washington Вашингтон, Wales Уельс, Westminster Вестминстер, Wilde Вайльд, Bowyear Бов'єр, Bristow Брістоу, Shaw Шоу, Snow Сноу, Mark Twain Марк Твен.

When used in various combinations, these and other English vowel and consonant phonemes are mostly conveyed in Ukrainian in accordance with the above-given reading rules. As a result, Eng­lish proper names are either transcribed or transliterated (or partly anscribed and partly transliterated) in Ukrainian. Mostly transcribed names/surnames containing specific English vowel phonemes тісії are usually formed by different sound/letter combinations: Abe

уйб, Aileen Ейлін, Bab Беб, Chauncey Чонсі, Dwight Двайт, Eli

\ Ілай, Lewie Луї/Льюї, Queenie Квіні, Raiph Рейф, Russel Расл,Theobald Тіобольд/Теобальд, Uriah Юрайя/Урія.

Irrespective of the considerable divergences existing between the phonemic systems of the two languages, a number of English proper names are rendered into Ukrainian by way of transliteration only: Barbara Барбара, Norman Норман, Rita Ріта, Tristram Трістрам, Victor Віктор, Adams Адаме, Barker Баркер, Collins Коллінс/з, Clark Кларк, Cronin Кронін, Wilson Вільсон, Nelson Нельсон, Robert Frost Роберт Фрост etc.

A few English proper names are transliterated with the omis­sion or addition of a letter or two in Ukrainian. This kind of rendering becomes necessary when dealing with specifically English spelling forms of proper names and to avoid the violation of the traditionally established spelling rules of the Ukrainian language: McDonald Макдональд, Macintosh Макінтош, McEnroe Макенро, Dinah Діна, Jupiter Юпітер, Judah Юда, Longfellow Лонгфелло, Williamson Вільямсон.

Some other English proper names of people and geographi­cal names are rendered into Ukrainian partly through transcription: Brooking Брукінґ, Huntington Гантінґтон, Liverpool Ліверпуль, New­ton Ньютон, Jackson Джексон, Aberdeen Абердін, Melbourne Мельбурн, Valentine Валентайн.

Besides, the exactitude of conveying English proper names in Ukrainian may be predetermined by some lingual and extralingual factors. The main of them are: absence in Ukrainian of correspond­ing phonemes and orthographic means to substitute some particular English sounds/letter combinations or the established tradition ac­cording to which some names are translated. It can already be seen on the following examples: Thorne Торн, Ethan Ітан, Faith Фейс/ Фейт, Fitzclarence Фіцкларенс, Graham Гре(йе)м, Galsworthy Ґолсуорсі, Goorka Ґурка, Hugon Гюґон, Hutchinson Гачінсон/ Гатчінсон, Ptolemy Птолемей, Whistler Віс(т)лер, Wriothesley Райетслі, and sevral others.

The bulk of all other English proper names, however, are also rendered into Ukrainian with the help of phonetical/phonological level units, i.e., either transcribed or transliterated. The degree of exacti­tude of their rendering depends on the existence/non-existence of appropriate or similar sounds in the target language. Care should be taken in order to avoid the influence of both the lingual and extralingual factors. For example, the well-known names as Adam, David can be translated into Ukrainian as Адам and Давид (Biblical or historical) or as Едем and Девід (common people's names). Similarly with Matthew, Paul, Rachel and some others which can be correspond­ingly rendered either as Матфей/Матвій, Павло, Рахіль or as Метью, Пол, Ре(й)чел, Pope John Paul II Папа Іван Павло Другий, etc.

Mostly translated, however, are the names of kings, queens, princes, princesses, tsars and tsarinas. These exceptions from the general rule are observed in the following names: King Charles/ George, Henry Король Карл/Георг, Генріх; Queen Elisabeth/Mary Stewart королева Єлизавета/Марія Стюарт; King James I (John, William) король Яків І (Іоанн, Вільгельм); Princess Ann/Margaret принцеса Анна/Маргарита; цар Олексадр/Микола/Павло Tsar Alexander/Nicolas/Paul.

Among the names of kings, queens, tsars, etc. are also some which are transliterated in the target language. These are mostly peculiar national names with no corresponding equivalents in other languages: King Horn король Горн; Prince Robert принц Роберт; цар Борис/Іван Tsar Boris/Ivan; король Болеслав King Boleslav, князь Мстислав Prince Mstyslav.

Nicknames of people are almost always translated irrespec­tive of the language they come from: King Charles the Great король Карл Великий; King Edward the Confessor король Едуард Сповідник; King Richard the Lionheart/Lionhearted король Річард Левине Серце; Prince William of Orange принц Вільгельм Оранський; князь Мстислав/Святослав Хоробрий Prince Mstyslav/ Svyatoslav the Brave; князь Ярослав Мудрий Prince Yaroslav the Wise; цар Василь Темний Tsar Basil the Blind; цар Іван Грозний Tsar Ivan the Terrible. Contrary to this rule is the wrong translation in our mass media of Prince Charles of Wales as принц Чарльз, in­stead of принц Карл (according to the historically established tradi­tion).

Indian chiefs' names and family names of American Indians, which became known mainly from J.F.Cooper's novels are trans­lated, as a rule, too: (the) Arrowhead Гостряк Стріли; Dew of June, Червнева Роса; Chingachgook the Big Serpent Чінгачгук Великий Змій; the Deerslayer (the Pathfinger) Звіробій (Знайдислід, «Слідопит»); the Leather Stocking, Hawk's Eye Шкіряна Панчоха, Соколине Око; John Running Deer, Джон Тікаючий Олень; Pete Brown Feather, Піт Руда Пір'їна. But: князь Осмомисл Prince Osmomysl, Олександр Невський Alexander Nevskii.

The so-called generalizing or characterizing names used by many authors in their belles-lettres works to point out some determi­nant (usually negative) feature of their characters are mostly not trans­lated but only transcribed or transliterated. Such are the characters, for example, from Ch. Dickens' works: Mrs. Porkenham (cf. pork and ham ласа/любителька добре поїсти, гурманка пані Поркенгем); Doctor Slammer (cf. to slam the door грюкати/грюкнути дверима лікар Слеммер); Тгасу Tupman (cf. tup-male sheep, ram баран, тупоголовий) Трейсі Тапмен; Nathaniel Winkle (cf. winkle sea snail used as food) морський равлик Натаніель Вінкель; Miss Witherfield (cf. wither, fade) в'янути, сохнути (в'януча стара діва) Міс Візерфільд

Some nicknames of this kind may naturally be translated, es­pecially when used in humorous stories as, for instance, in Stephan Leacock's Guide the Gimlet of Ghent: A Romance of Chivalry: Carlo the Corkscrew Карло Штопор, Beowulf the Bradawl Беовульф Шило, Conrad the Coconut Конрад Кокосовий Горіх. But: Mrs. Af­terthought місіс Афтерсот and not пані Розумна Заднім Розумом.

It must be emphasized that in recent decades there has been a general tendency in translation practice to transcribe or transliter­ate foreign proper names and not to translate them. In conformity with the tendency some proper names of people and place names which had hitherto been translated are now transcribed or transliter­ated. So Michael Faraday is no more Михайло Фарадей but Майкл Фарадей; George Washington is Джорж (and not Георг) Вашінгтон; Alessandro Volta is no more Олександр but Алессандро Вольта; Salt Lake City is no more місто Солоного Озера but місто Солт Лейк-Сіті; Leicester and Worcester are no more Лейсестер and Ворчестер but Лестер and Вустер; Hull is no more Ґуль but Галл, etc. This tendency should also be observed when dealing with some other proper names, including geographical ones. The latter, as may have been noticed, are conveyed in Ukrainian/English in the same way as the proper names of people, i.e., they are traditionally trans­literated or transcribed: Arkansas Арканзас (ріка) but Аркенсо (штат США); Belfast/Chicago Белфаст/Чикаго, Dublin/Ottawa Дублін/ Оттава, San-Francisco Сан-Франциско, Бахмач Bakhmach, Бровари Brovary, Горлівка Horlivka, Ізмаїл/Канів Ismail/Kaniv, Лисянка Lysianka/Lysyanka, Суми Sumy, etc.

A considerable number of English geographical names are also rendered into Ukrainian by way of transcription only: Bucking­hamshire Бакінгемшир, Capetown/Ohio Кейптаун/Огайо, Dashwood Дешвуд, Dundee-Данді, Freetown Фрітаун, Newfoundland Ньюфаундленд, Seattle Сіетл, Sutherland Сазерленд, Greenfield Ґрінфілд.

Many English place names, along with other geographical and proper names, are conveyed in Ukrainian partly with the help of tran­scription and partly via transliteration. This can be observed in the two-syllable names in the examples below. The first (1) group of the geographical names has the initial syllables transliterated and the closing syllables transcribed, whereas the second group (2) contains geographical names with the initial syllables transcribed and the clos­ing syllables transliterated:

(1) (2)

Birmingham Бірмінгем Brighton Брайтон

Kingstown Кінгстаун Greensboro Ґрінзборо

Midway Мідвей Houston Г'юстон

Sheffield Шеффілд Wyoming Вайоминґ (штат США)

A few geographical names and some proper names of people have a traditionally established orthographical form which does not reflect in any way their pronunciation or their real orthographic form in the English language: the Arctic Ocean Північний Льодовитий океан; Maine Мен (штат США); Mexico Мехіко; New Orleans Новий Орлеан; Ulster Ольстер; Texas Техас (штат США), Lake Superior Озеро Верхнє.

Names of seas, oceans, bays, archipelagos, isthmuses, straits, channels, administrative territories and compound names of coun­tries having the structure of word-combinations are always trans­lated: the Atlantic/Pacific/Indian Ocean Атлантичний/Тихий/ Індійський океан; the Grampians (Appalachians) Грампіанські (Аппалацькі) гори; the Gulf of Mexico (Salonika) Мексиканська (Салонікська) затока; the Isthmus of Suez/Panama Суецький (Панамський) перешийок; New South Wales Новий Південний Уельс (Австралія); Strait of Magellan/Gibraltar Магелланова/ Ґібралтарська протока; Карпати/Карпатські гори the Carpathians/ Carpathian Mts.); Закарпаття Transcarpathia (Transcarpathian Re­gion of Ukraine); Краснодарський/Ставропольський край Krasnodar/Stavropol Territory; Південо-український зрошувальний канал the South Ukrainian Irrigation Canal; Азовське/Каспійське море Sea of Azov, the Caspian Sea; Керченська Протока/Карські Ворота Strait of Kerch/Kara Strait; Курільські/Оркнейські о-ви Kuril(e) Islands/Orkney Islands, Stratford-on-Avon Стратфорд-на-Ейвоні, Ростов-на-Дону Rostov-on-Don.

The geographical names formed on the basis of common nouns which acquired the status of proper names are generally trans­lated from English into Ukrainian and vice versa: Cape of Good Hope/ Cape May мис Доброї Надії/мис Кейп-Мей, Саре Verde Islands O-ви Зеленого Мису; Golden Gate Золоті Ворота (протока поблизу м.Сан-Франциско); Grand Bank(s) Велика Мілина (поблизу о-ва Ньюфаундленд); Great Slave Lake Велике Невільничне озеро; Northern Highlands Північне-шотландське нагір'я; the Rocky Moun­tains/the Appalachians Скелясті гори/Аппалачі/Аппалацькі гори.

Still other geographical names having single word and word-combination structures require some identifying element in the tar­get language (an appositional noun, an adjective, etc.). These ele­ments explain the nature and the real meaning of the geographical name in the target language: the Azores/the Seychelles Азорські/ Сейшельські о-ви; Idaho Falls місто Айдаго-Фолз; New England Нова Англія, Maine штат Мен, Massachusetts штат Массачузетс, Connecticut штат Коннектіка(у)т, Rhode Island (штат) Род-Айленд, Vermont штат Вермонт; Saint Vincent/Saint Helena Island о-ви Сент-Вінсент/Святої Єлени; the Saint Lawrence p. Святого Лаврентія; Sutherland Сазерленд (графство Шотландії); Буг/ Десна/Рось the Buh/the Desna/the Ros' (rivers in Ukraine); Верховина Verkhovyna (upland pastures in the Carpathians); Донбас Donets Basin/Donets coal field(s); Поділ Podil (lower part of Kyjy city, a city district); Херсонщина/Львівщина/Полтавщина Kherson/ Lviv/Poltava region/ oblast.

Foreign geographical names as well as many proper names of people are often reproduced in English not in the spelling form of the source language but in the traditionally established spelling form of the target language: Аахен (Germ. Aachen) Aix-la-Chapelle; Антверпен (Dutch Antwerpen) Antwerp; Варшава (Pol. Warszawa) Warsaw; Венеція (Ital. Venezia) Venice; Вогняна Земля (Span.) Tierra del Fuego; Гаага (Dutch den Haag) the Hague; Генуя (Ital. Geneva) Genoa; Італія (Ital. Italia) Italy; Кельн (Germ. Кціп) Co­logne; Ліворно (Ital. Livorno) Leghorn; Лотарінгія (Fr. Lorraine) Lor­raine; Майнц (Germ. Mainz) Mayence; Maas (Germ. Maas) Meuse; Мюнхен (Germ. Мьпспеп) Munich.

Ukrainian geographical names should be translated into Eng­lish as close to their source language form as possible unless other of their forms are historically or traditionally established: Ананьїв Ananiiv/Ananyiv; Богуслав Bohuslav; Виноград Vynohrad; Моринці Moryntsi; Запоріжжя Zaporizhia/Zaporizhya; Кам'яний Брід Kamianyi/Kamyanyi Brid; Жуляни Zhuliany/Zhulyany; Чернігів Chernihiv; Щигри Shchyhry/Scyhry; Київ/Одеса Kyiv/Odesa; Хутір Михайлівський Khutir Mykhailivskyi.

The students must bear it in mind that some geographical names have in English their historically established forms/variants too: Кольський півострів Kola Peninsula, Ладозьке озеро Ladoga, Онезьке озеро Onega, Мала Азія Asia Minor, Середня Азія Cen­tral Asia, Неаполь (It. Napoh) Naples, Hebrides Гібриди/Гібридські острови (also Western Isles), etc.

of their forms are historically or traditionally established: Ананьїв Ananiiv/Ananyiv; Богуслав Bohuslav; Виноград Vynohrad; Моринці Moryntsi; Запоріжжя Zaporizhia/Zaporizhya; Кам'яний Брід Kamianyi/Kamyanyi Brid; Жуляни Zhuliany/Zhulyany; Чернігів Chernihiv; Щигри Shchyhry orScyhry; Київ/Одеса Kyiv/Odesa; Хутір Михайлівський Khutir Mykhailivskyi.

The students must bear it in mind that some geographical names have in English their historically established forms/variants too: Кольський півострів Kola Peninsula, Ладозьке озеро Ladoga, Онезьке озеро Onega, Мала Азія Asia Minor, Середня Азія Central Asia, Неаполь (It. Napoli) Naples, Hebrides Гібриди/Гібридські острови (also Western Isles), etc.

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