Scientific literature is an important means of maintaining of the existence and development of science, firstly, the means of distributing and storing of the achieved scientific knowledge, secondly, the means of communication, scientific intercommunication between scientists. Books: monographs, brochures, textbooks, scientific and methodological publications, training manuals. Scientific book - the most important means of generalization of scientific information. The books are published theoretical studies on experiences made in various practice areas, developed strategic issues of science, economy and culture. Planning for reading is one of the most important conditions for highly productive and fast reading is a clear plan of work. First of all it is planned content of reading. Getting to the study of a specific problem or area of expertise, you must first make a list of the basic literature. In the first, you will work with books which in this field of knowledge are fundamental. Then you can read the books and articles that complement the already acquired knowledge.
1. Library catalogs.
2. Recent issues of journals during each year, where the lists of all articles published in the current year are placed.
3. Bibliographies which are given at the end of monographs and lists of references in dissertations.
4. Electronic databases.
Рассмотрите особенности ведения записей при работе с источниками научной информации.
Start search necessary information, you should be clear about where to find them and what possibilities in this respect are those organizations that exist for this purpose - the library and bodies of scientific information.
Organs of the scientific and technical information. From the perspective of the development of science and practice, in accordance with the socio-economic structure of our society has created a unified state system of scientific and technical information (GSNTI), which includes a network of special institutions for its collection, compilation and dissemination.
It is intended to serve as a collective consumer information - enterprises, research and design organizations - and individual.
Familiarity with the book.
The value of each scientific work varies within very wide limits. Far from any book should be read in full, in some cases may be needed only parts of it.
Therefore, to save time, and in order to define the objectives and approaches to reading the book, it is recommended to start with a preliminary acquaintance with it for the purpose of the overall presentation of the product and its structure, organization bibliographic apparatus. It is necessary to take into account all the elements of the book that make it possible to evaluate it properly. It is best to do the following sequence:
• publishing (or institution, published a book);
• the time of publication;
• a table of contents;
• copyright or publishing the preface;
• bibliographic apparatus (pointers, applications, list of abbreviations, and so on. N.).
Record keeping - an indispensable element of work on the book, inseparable from the process of reading, and therefore can not be postponed "for later". Entries should be as complete. It usually takes much less time than a second appeal to the book.
Practical recommendations - to keep records only on one side of the sheet. At the same time accelerating their search and systematization, it is possible to make any insertion into the text, use the records to produce reports and manuscripts of scientific and literary roizvedeniy.V the latter case, it is advisable to be there all the records in two copies: one is for storage, and the second is on "cut" for the preparation of articles, brochures, books, and so on. d.
structure of the book, and the process itself helps in the absorption of its contents.
Glossary of terms and concepts. Not casually refers to a group of records associated with the need analytical processing of text. Create for yourself a dictionary and give an accurate interpretation of all the special terms and concepts - it is not mechanical.
Very often it is connected with the necessity of a long search in handbooks and manuals. Maintain a glossary of terms and concepts usually associated with the process of learning to read professional literature.
Holographic analysis as a method of processing of scientific information.
Голографический анализ как метод обработки научной информации.
Reading and will outline the scientific literature, you should immediately think about how it will be presented in the text of the abstract, projects and dissertations. You can not rewrite and retell "in his own words" other people's texts and to give his own. The content should be handled and processed form used in your text. This is done through a variety of theoretical methods and analysis techniques mainly. This analysis involves the decomposition of text selection according to the kind of analysis of the individual elements, the determination of the leading system element, the establishment of links between elements.
processing methods of scientific information: The method of deconstruction, axiomatic method, appertsipirovaniya, descriptive method diachronic method, aspect analysis, hermeneutic analysis Holographic analysis, content analysis, critical analysis, complex analysis, and so on.
Holographic analysis - analysis of holistic phenomenon or process in all its relationships and dependencies in the movement and its relations with the external environment. This is the most difficult type of analysis with which connect theoretical knowledge of dedicated research and practice knowledge of its operation , identifies its various internal structures and their interactions. This method is in its infancy , and because of his experience in the use of the students is very important.
Content analysis as a method of processing of scientific information. Контент анализ
Как метод обработки научной информации.
Content analysis is a widely used qualitative research technique. Rather than being a single method, current applications of content analysis show three distinct approaches: conventional, directed, or summative. All three approaches are used to interpret meaning from the content of text data and, hence, adhere to the naturalistic paradigm. The major differences among the approaches are coding schemes, origins of codes, and threats to trustworthiness. In conventional content analysis, coding categories are derived directly from the text data. With a directed approach, analysis starts with a theory or relevant research findings as guidance for initial codes. A summative content analysis involves counting and comparisons, usually of keywords or content, followed by the interpretation of the underlying context. The authors delineate analytic procedures specific to each approach and techniques addressing trustworthiness with hypothetical examples drawn from the area of end-of-life care.
There are three main directions of application of the content analysis:
a) identification of that existed to the text and that in one way or another received in it reflection (the text as the indicator of certain parties of the studied object — surrounding reality, the author or the addressee);
b) definition of that exists only in the text as that (various characteristics of a form — language, structure and a genre of the message, a rhythm and tone of the speech);
c) identification of that will exist after the text, i.e. after his perception the addressee (an assessment of various effects of influence).
Critical analysis as a method for processing scientific information. Критический