The planning of scientific research
1) the formulation of the problem or the theme of the scientific research,
2) the definition of the object and the subject of the study,
3) the definition of aims and tasks of the researches,
4) the interpretation of the basic concepts,
5) the formulation of the working hypotheses.
The object of study is social phenomenon or process, which consists a contradiction and creates problem situation. The object of study answers the question: what is considered?
The subject of the study is the most significant a property, a party, a feature of the object that should be studied.
Criteria for evaluating the reliability of the results of the validation results of research. criteria theoretical study. Result of a theoretical study - theory , concept , or any theoretical constructs - design must meet the following criteria for all branches of scientific knowledge : 1. objectivity ; 2 . fullness 3. consistency 4. interpretability 5. verifiability 6. reliability.
Structural components of the research work
Work structure should be as follows: title page; content; introduction; head of the main body; conclusions; list of references ; App .
The title page is the first page of research and filled according to certain rules . In the upper field, the full name of the institution on the basis of which the investigation is carried out . The middle field is given the title of the work , which is made without the word "theme" and is not in quotation marks . After the title indicate the type of scientific - research work. Below, closer to the right edge of the cover sheet, the surname, first name artist and then fixed surname, name, patronymic of the head, his academic title (if available) and position . In the bottom field specifies the location of the institution and year of writing work.
Content is placed on the second page. It provides the names of chapters and sections on the pages indicated, from which they start.
Chapters and paragraphs are numbered in a multilevel system , that is denoted by digital numbers containing all stages of their number and column headings which they are subject . The introduction and conclusion are not numbered.
In the introduction, the problem is fixed, the relevance, the practical significance of the study, defined the object and subject of research; specify the purpose and objectives of the study ; briefly lists the methods of work. All of the above components of administration should be interconnected with each other.
An important point in this paper is the formulation of a hypothesis that should be scientifically sound logical, it is probable assumption requiring special proof for its final approval as a theoretical position. Scientific hypothesis is considered consistent if it meets the following requirements:
does not include too many positions;
contains no unambiguous terms;
goes beyond the simple registration of facts is their
explanation and prediction , arguing specifically new thought, idea ;
testable and is applicable to a wide range of phenomena ;
does not include value judgments ;
has the right stylistic design.
By methodical recommendations on the implementation of written works ( projects) must meet the following mandatory requirements :
1 ) They should be available to students ( replicated , located in the department and in the library) ;
2) they must be specified :
- Goals and objectives of the work ( project);
- Contents of the sections , their number ;
- Formulas and calculation tables ;
- Criteria for assessing the current performance of work ( project) and protection , related to the specific profession or discipline;
- Approximate topics work (projects );
- References ;
Consider the concepts of information and scientific information. Рассмотрите понятия информация и научная информация.
Information (shortened as info or info.) is that which informs, i.e. that from which data can be derived. At its most fundamental, information is any propagation of cause and effect within a system. Information is conveyed either as the content of a message or through direct or indirect observation of some thing.
Scientific information - is a logical information obtained in the process of learning , adequately reflects the laws of the objective world and is used in the socio- historical practice . The main features of scientific information :
- It is acquired in the process of knowledge of the laws of objective reality , the basis of which is the practice , and served in an appropriate form ;
- A documented or publicly disclosed information about domestic and foreign achievements in science, technology , production, obtained during the research , development , production and social activities .
Consider the properties of scientific information. Рассмотрите свойства научной
Information (shortened as info or info.) is that which informs, i.e. that from which knowledge and data can be derived (as data represents values attributed to parameters, and knowledge signifies understanding of real things or abstract concepts). As it regards data, the information's existence is not necessarily coupled to an observer (it exists beyond an event horizon, for example), while in the case of knowledge, information requires a cognitive observer. At its most fundamental, information is any propagation of cause and effect within a system. Information is conveyed either as the content of a message or through direct or indirect observation of some thing. That which is perceived can be construed as a message in its own right, and in that sense, information is always conveyed as the content of a message. Information can be encoded into various forms for transmission and interpretation
Properties of scientific information:
- Cumulative, that is, more than a brief summary of information when eventually dropping out of secondary and primary simply and concisely (kiss);
- Aging - information is completely obsolete when there is a new and the previous is wrong, that is, cease to be of scientific information or is mentioned more concisely and generalized;
- Scattering - a unit of information - concepts, hypotheses, theories, facts - are used in the works of other authors in different ways and in different contexts.
• Authenticity (proximity to the source of information or the accuracy of its transmission);
• Objectivity (information, purified from the inevitable distortions in its transmission, for example, through informal channels);
• Relevance (the extent to which the information problem solving);
• Relevance (importance of information at a time).
• Completeness (information without the "information noise");
• Adequacy (the amount of information sufficient for making a definite decision).
• Value (value information for a particular purpose);
• Cost (all costs upon receipt of information).
33. Formulate the basic requirements for scientific information. Рассмотрите основные требования, предъявляемые к научной информации.
How to determine its Soviet scholars AI Mikhailov, AI Black, RS Gilyarevsky, scientific information - it gets in the learning process logical information that adequately reflects the laws of the objective world and is used in the socio-historical practice.
From the definition it follows that science can be considered only the information that satisfies the requirements of several serious. Otherwise, without presenting these requirements, we would constantly confused in whether this information is scientific or not.
To answer these questions we must turn to the definition of scientific information. It states that, firstly, the scientific information obtained in the course of human knowledge, and, therefore, inextricably linked with its practical, productive activity, since the latter is the basis of knowledge.
Secondly, scientific information - a logical information that is generated by processing information supplied man senses using abstract logical thinking.
Scientific information will be in the case where the data between the link is established. Thus it is necessary to take into account the third condition for inclusion of certain information to the scientific. It should adequately reflect the objective world. However, these conditions are not enough.
Information to be considered scientific, it must satisfy another, the fourth condition: she must always be used in the socio-historical practice. That is why the scientific information can not be attributed science fiction literary works. Can not be considered adequate scientific and logical process the information received by someone as a result of long-term observation of the weather with only one purpose, to choose the most appropriate time for the holidays. This example shows that not every use of the information makes it scientific. Thus, the data of meteorological observations, treated to weather forecasting, by definition, already represent scientific information. And if we come to the conclusion that the meteorological information can be attributed to scientific information, then, subject to these conditions, it can be classified and astronomical, biological, chemical information, ie Information within the scope of competence of any branch of science.