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Formulate the basic approaches for the definition of the concepts of science and scientific knowledge. Сформулируйте основные подходы к определению понятий наука и научное знание.

Formulate the basic approaches for the definition of the concepts of science and scientific knowledge. Сформулируйте основные подходы к определению понятий наука и научное знание.

Science (Latin scientia) sphere of human activity aimed at developing theoretical and schematization objective knowledge about reality. Science goals - gaining knowledge about the world, the prediction processes and phenomena of reality based opened its laws. The main tasks of science: 1) discovery of the laws of motion of nature, society, thought and knowledge; 2) the collection, analysis, summary of facts; 3) systematization of the knowledge gained;4 ) an explanation of the essence of phenomena and processes; 5) prediction of events, phenomena and processes; 6 ) setting directions and forms of practical use of the knowledge gained.

Classification (from Lat. Slassis - digit) - a system of coordinated concepts in any field of knowledge or activity. Science can be divided into 3 groups (subsystems ) - natural sciences, social sciences and humanities. The natural sciences include physics, chemistry, biological sciences and a number of others in the number of social sciences include economics, sociology, political science, social psychology. By the humanities are a number of historical science, linguistics, psychology and others. Some of these disciplines tend to be pure description, for example the story, the other - combined with the description of the assessment and prefer absolute estimates, for example psychology . Each of these subsystems form a variety of ways a system of coordinated and subordinated substantive and methodological constraints of the separate sciences. Challenge the basic sciences is knowledge of the laws that govern the behavior and interaction of basic structures of nature, society and thought.

The purpose of Applied Science - use the results of basic sciences to solve not only cognitive, but also social and practical problems. Between the actual social and human sciences are sciences that can be called normative: ethics, aesthetics, art, etc. To include formal sciences of logic and mathematics. Classification facilitates the movement of science degree from the accumulation of empirical knowledge on the level of theoretical synthesis. Classification of the sciences is of great importance for the organization of research, educational and library activities.

Identify the features of science. Сформулируйте отличительные признаки науки.

1. Science uses a model to explain the aspects of the real world. Scientists try to explain aspects of the real world, comparing them with models that are based on known mechanisms. Scientific models should be checked and they are accepted by scientists only after they have been tested in the real world.

2. Scientific models falsifiable (Popper's criterion). To recognize as a scientific model, there must be some way of checking to see whether it is false. Model / idea still in dispute as long as they falsify evidence in such trials.

3. Scientific models are tested for predictability and cross-checked with data obtained in the real world. Real research models protect science from wishful thinking. Scientific model recognized as valid only after will be tested in the real world and the evidence will confirm it. Scientists believe most of the model, which is supported by several independent lines of evidence

4. Science uses controlled experiments to test the model. Experiments were used to collect data in a controlled environment

5. Science uses surveillance to verify the model. In the case where the conditions can not be controlled, scientists can collect data by observing past events or phenomena occurring within events

6. Science quantifies the uncertainty of their data and findings. Every scientific measurement should include an indication of its error.

7. Science is a collective activity: its models are cumulative, interrelated and consistent. Every scientific model is based on the cooperation of the scientific community. Models who survive do so because they fit into the accepted model and reinforce scientific knowledge.

8. Science is based on the contributions of scientists, and not on their authority. The work of scientists, does not depend on whether they are prominent or influential, evidence is always evaluated for their quality and reasoning, not by the authority of the author

9. Science recognizes that it can not explain everything. There are aspects of the natural world that science can not understand, and that science can investigate, much remains to be discovered / understand

Relate the science as a system, its features and structure. Расскажите о науке как

Системе, ее особенностях и структуре.

Science (Latin scientia) sphere of human activity aimed at developing theoretical and schematization objective knowledge about reality. Science goals - gaining knowledge about the world, the prediction processes and phenomena of reality based opened its laws. The main tasks of science: 1) discovery of the laws of motion of nature, society, thought and knowledge; 2) the collection, analysis, summary of facts; 3) systematization of the knowledge gained;4 ) an explanation of the essence of phenomena and processes; 5) prediction of events, phenomena and processes; 6 ) setting directions and forms of practical use of the knowledge gained.

Classification (from Lat. Slassis - digit) - a system of coordinated concepts in any field of knowledge or activity. Science can be divided into 3 groups (subsystems ) - natural sciences, social sciences and humanities. The natural sciences include physics, chemistry, biological sciences and a number of others in the number of social sciences include economics, sociology, political science, social psychology. By the humanities are a number of historical science, linguistics, psychology and others. Some of these disciplines tend to be pure description, for example the story, the other - combined with the description of the assessment and prefer absolute estimates, for example psychology . Each of these subsystems form a variety of ways a system of coordinated and subordinated substantive and methodological constraints of the separate sciences. Challenge the basic sciences is knowledge of the laws that govern the behavior and interaction of basic structures of nature, society and thought.

The purpose of Applied Science - use the results of basic sciences to solve not only cognitive, but also social and practical problems. Between the actual social and human sciences are sciences that can be called normative: ethics, aesthetics, art, etc. To include formal sciences of logic and mathematics. Classification facilitates the movement of science degree from the accumulation of empirical knowledge on the level of theoretical synthesis. Classification of the sciences is of great importance for the organization of research, educational and library activities.

Relate the aims and objectives of the researches and their classification on various

Examine the classification of scientific methods of cognition. Рассмотрите

Specify the criteria applicable to the issue of scientific research. Сформулируйте

Consider the features of conclusions stating based on the results of research work.

Consider the properties of scientific information. Рассмотрите свойства научной

Информации.

Information (shortened as info or info.) is that which informs, i.e. that from which knowledge and data can be derived (as data represents values attributed to parameters, and knowledge signifies understanding of real things or abstract concepts). As it regards data, the information's existence is not necessarily coupled to an observer (it exists beyond an event horizon, for example), while in the case of knowledge, information requires a cognitive observer. At its most fundamental, information is any propagation of cause and effect within a system. Information is conveyed either as the content of a message or through direct or indirect observation of some thing. That which is perceived can be construed as a message in its own right, and in that sense, information is always conveyed as the content of a message. Information can be encoded into various forms for transmission and interpretation

Properties of scientific information:

- Cumulative, that is, more than a brief summary of information when eventually dropping out of secondary and primary simply and concisely (kiss);

- Aging - information is completely obsolete when there is a new and the previous is wrong, that is, cease to be of scientific information or is mentioned more concisely and generalized;

- Scattering - a unit of information - concepts, hypotheses, theories, facts - are used in the works of other authors in different ways and in different contexts.

Qualitative characteristics:

• Authenticity (proximity to the source of information or the accuracy of its transmission);

• Objectivity (information, purified from the inevitable distortions in its transmission, for example, through informal channels);

• Timeliness;

• Relevance (the extent to which the information problem solving);

• Relevance (importance of information at a time).

Quantitative characteristics:

• Completeness (information without the "information noise");

• Adequacy (the amount of information sufficient for making a definite decision).

Value characteristics:

• Value (value information for a particular purpose);

• Cost (all costs upon receipt of information).

33. Formulate the basic requirements for scientific information. Рассмотрите основные требования, предъявляемые к научной информации.

How to determine its Soviet scholars AI Mikhailov, AI Black, RS Gilyarevsky, scientific information - it gets in the learning process logical information that adequately reflects the laws of the objective world and is used in the socio-historical practice.

From the definition it follows that science can be considered only the information that satisfies the requirements of several serious. Otherwise, without presenting these requirements, we would constantly confused in whether this information is scientific or not.

To answer these questions we must turn to the definition of scientific information. It states that, firstly, the scientific information obtained in the course of human knowledge, and, therefore, inextricably linked with its practical, productive activity, since the latter is the basis of knowledge.

Secondly, scientific information - a logical information that is generated by processing information supplied man senses using abstract logical thinking.

Scientific information will be in the case where the data between the link is established. Thus it is necessary to take into account the third condition for inclusion of certain information to the scientific. It should adequately reflect the objective world. However, these conditions are not enough.

Information to be considered scientific, it must satisfy another, the fourth condition: she must always be used in the socio-historical practice. That is why the scientific information can not be attributed science fiction literary works. Can not be considered adequate scientific and logical process the information received by someone as a result of long-term observation of the weather with only one purpose, to choose the most appropriate time for the holidays. This example shows that not every use of the information makes it scientific. Thus, the data of meteorological observations, treated to weather forecasting, by definition, already represent scientific information. And if we come to the conclusion that the meteorological information can be attributed to scientific information, then, subject to these conditions, it can be classified and astronomical, biological, chemical information, ie Information within the scope of competence of any branch of science.

Различным основаниям.

Are sources of scientific information is: theses, the deposited manuscripts, reports on the scientific research works, scientific translations and analytical materials. All documentary sources of scientific information share on primary and secondary.

Primary sources are original materials on which research is based. They present original thinking, report on discoveries, or share new information. They are usually the first formal appearance of results (for example, the first publication of the results of scientific investigations is a primary source). They present information in its original form, neither interpreted nor condensed nor evaluated by other writers. They are from the time period (for example, something written close to when what it is recording happened is likely to be a primary source.)

Some examples of Primary sources:

Scientific journal articles reporting experimental research results; Proceedings of meetings, conferences and symposia; Technical reports; Dissertations or theses (may also be secondary); Patents; Communications on email, listservs, and newsgroups.

Secondary sources are less easily defined than primary sources. What some define as a secondary source, others define as a tertiary source. A newspaper article is a primary source if it reports events, but a secondary source if it analyses and comments on those events. In science, secondary sources are those which review, compare, contrast, repackage, reorganise, interpret, summarise, index or otherwise “add value” to the new

information reported in the primary literature. Secondary sources are works which are one or more steps removed from the event, or information they refer to, being written after the fact with the benefit of hindsight.

Some examples of Secondary sources:

Review articles and literature reviews; Works of criticism and interpretation; Textbooks (may also be tertiary); Biographical works; Commentaries; History; Journal articles, particularly in disciplines other than science (may also be primary); Monographs (other than fiction and autobiography); Newspaper and popular magazine articles (may also be primary).

Десятичной классификации.

The Universal Decimal Classification (UDC) is a bibliographic and library classification developed by the Belgian bibliographers Paul Otlet and Henri La Fontaine at the end of the 19th century. UDC provides a systematic arrangement of all branches of human knowledge organized as a coherent system in which knowledge fields are related and inter-linked. Originally based on the Dewey Decimal Classification, the UDC was developed as a new analytico-synthetic classification system with a significantly larger vocabulary and syntax that enables very detailed content indexing and information retrieval in large collections.

The Modern state.

UDC is a central part of the main tables covering the entire body of knowledge and constructed in a hierarchical manner division from general to specific decimal using a decimal code.

Notation

A notation is a code commonly used in classification schemes to represent a class, i.e. a subject and its position in the hierarchy, to enable mechanical sorting and filing of subjects. UDC uses Arabic numerals arranged decimally. Every number is thought of as a decimal fraction with the initial decimal point omitted, which determines the filing order. An advantage of decimal notational systems is that they are infinitely extensible, and when new subdivisions are introduced, they need not disturb the existing allocation of numbers.

UDC table consists of the following parts:

1. The structure, properties and principles UDC

2. Methodical instructions for use UDC

3. The main sections of UDC

4. Alphabetical Index (AAP) to the main sections of UDC

5. Auxiliary tables UDC

6. Alphabetical Index to the auxiliary tables

The main division UDC:

0. The general department. Science and knowledge. Information. Data Sheet. Librarianship. Organization. Publication as a whole

1. Philosophy. psychology

2. Religion. theology

3. Social Sciences

4. (Reserved for future use.) Available since 1962, the contents transferred to Division 8 [5].

5. Mathematics. natural sciences

6. Applied Science. Medicine. technology

7. Art. Photo. Music. Game. sport

8. Linguistics. Linguistics. Fiction. literary criticism

9. Geography. Biographies. history

Formulate the basic approaches for the definition of the concepts of science and scientific knowledge. Сформулируйте основные подходы к определению понятий наука и научное знание.

Science (Latin scientia) sphere of human activity aimed at developing theoretical and schematization objective knowledge about reality. Science goals - gaining knowledge about the world, the prediction processes and phenomena of reality based opened its laws. The main tasks of science: 1) discovery of the laws of motion of nature, society, thought and knowledge; 2) the collection, analysis, summary of facts; 3) systematization of the knowledge gained;4 ) an explanation of the essence of phenomena and processes; 5) prediction of events, phenomena and processes; 6 ) setting directions and forms of practical use of the knowledge gained.

Classification (from Lat. Slassis - digit) - a system of coordinated concepts in any field of knowledge or activity. Science can be divided into 3 groups (subsystems ) - natural sciences, social sciences and humanities. The natural sciences include physics, chemistry, biological sciences and a number of others in the number of social sciences include economics, sociology, political science, social psychology. By the humanities are a number of historical science, linguistics, psychology and others. Some of these disciplines tend to be pure description, for example the story, the other - combined with the description of the assessment and prefer absolute estimates, for example psychology . Each of these subsystems form a variety of ways a system of coordinated and subordinated substantive and methodological constraints of the separate sciences. Challenge the basic sciences is knowledge of the laws that govern the behavior and interaction of basic structures of nature, society and thought.

The purpose of Applied Science - use the results of basic sciences to solve not only cognitive, but also social and practical problems. Between the actual social and human sciences are sciences that can be called normative: ethics, aesthetics, art, etc. To include formal sciences of logic and mathematics. Classification facilitates the movement of science degree from the accumulation of empirical knowledge on the level of theoretical synthesis. Classification of the sciences is of great importance for the organization of research, educational and library activities.

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