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Thinking about your presentation

1. State your purpose, be specific.

2. Identify the central idea of your presentation.

3. List the main points of your presentation.

4. Think of supporting material for each main point.

5. Decide what kinds of visual aids you will use

Preparing for your presentation

1. Write an outline of your presentation. You might want to add transition words between the sections.

2. Write the introduction.

3. Write the conclusion.

4. Print the introduction, outline, and conclusion in big print.

5. Prepare your visuals.

Practicing your presentation

1. Stand up and give your presentation. Pretend that you have an audience and look at it.

2. Do it again and time yourself. Make any adjustments necessary for time.

3. Ask a friend to listen and critique it.

4. Practice it several more times until you are comfortable and not reading it.

Giving the presentation

1. Have everything ready. Don't spend time collecting possessions and getting it in order when it's time for you to speak.

2. Walk to the front of the room confidently, put your notes on the lectern, and start.

3. Don't apologize for anything.

4. Make eye contact with your audience. Don't just look at your notes or at the wall.

5. Do not read! It's really boring.

6. Be enthusiastic about your topic.

7. When you finish, collect your possessions quickly and sit down.

B. Answer the questions:

1. What is the topic of the paper you are going to present?

2. Why are you interested in this particular topic?

3. Do you always prepare for presentations?

4. What recommendations for making oral presentations do you find most helpful?

5. Which ones do you always follow?

C. Read and practice some useful paper speech patterns:

Introductory Paper Speech Patterns

Mr. Chairman, ladies and gentlemen, I am greatly honoured to be invited to this conference.

In this paper I would like to talk about the concept of ... .

The object of this paper is to show ... .

To begin with, let us imagine that ... .

As many of you know ... .

First of all I would like to ... .

I am sure I don't have to remind you that ... .

I am very pleased to have this opportunity to ... .

In my paper I want to highlight ... .

In the introduction to my paper I would like to ... .

I tell this story because ... .

I want to begin my presentation with ... .

Let me begin with ... .

The first thing I want to talk about is ... .

The subject that I will discuss is ... .

Speech Patterns for the Body of the Paper

According to this theory ... .

After this, I need / it remains only to say that ... .

Again, I want to emphasize that ... .

It should be emphasized that ... .

It should be pointed out that ... .

Let me give you my explanation of ... .

Let me now turn to ... .

Let us consider what happens if ... .

Let us have a closer look at ... .

Let us imagine that ... .

Let us suppose that ... .

Now I come to ... .

On the contrary ... .

On the one hand ... , on the other hand ... .

Primarily ... .

This is indeed the case when ... .

This in turn implies ... .

This is particularly true for ... .

Closing Paper Speech Patterns

Since I am running out of time ... .

As my time is running out ... .

Before I close I would like to emphasize the importance of ... .

Finally, I want to say a few words about ... .

I end this paper with a description of ... .

I leave it to you to judge ... .

In closing, I want to mention very briefly ... .

In conclusion, let me say ... .

In conclusion, may I repeat ... .

Summing up, I would like to ... .

The last part of my talk will be devoted to ... .

To all this must be added that ... .

Formulas of Scientific Communication

Establishing contacts   Agreeing   Disagreeing     Expressing surprise   Expressing uncertainty     Making contribution   Calling attention   Making assessment     Starting a conversation     Making remarks     Provoking arguments     Asking for details/ classification     Introducing opinions/ attitudes   Delaying an answer     Avoiding answering I'm glad you've asked me that question.   Yes, indeed. I think you are entirely right. It appears to me to be true. I agree that.... That's just what I think   I am arguing against.... I would object just a little .... I object to.... I wish I could agree with you but....   It is rather surprising .... It is unbelievable .... I am puzzled by.... I wonder about.... I find it hard to believe that....   It seems unlikely that.... I have doubts about.... I am not at all sure about.... I am not yet certain... . I am doubtful whether.... I have been rather puzzled by.... I doubt it.   In connection with ... I would like to add ... . Let me add that ... . In addition, I would like to mention ... . I would add that ... .   I want to point out that ... . I would like to note ... . I would like to stress the importance of ... . It is worth pointing out that ... . I would like to draw your attention to ... . I would like to call attention to ... .   The paper raises an important question ... . This method is particularly important because ... The paper demonstrates how important it is to ... These results/data are of principal interest.   As far as I know... . What I have in mind is that....   I'd like to make a comment on.... I would like to comment on.... I have a point to make.   Would you agree with ... ? There seems to be some contradiction between your points of view. Does that mean you think ... ?     Could you be more specific about ... ? I am not clear about ... . Could you give us/me some more facts to back that up, please?   Well, I'd like to say that ... . What I think is ... .   Well, let me see ... . Well, now ... . That's a good question ... . Oh, let me think for a moment ... . It is rather difficult to answer this question ... . It's difficult to give you an exact answer, but ... . I'm not too sure, but ... . I've no idea, I'm afraid.     I have no particular theory for this fact, but.... I'm terribly sorry, I really don't know. Actually, I don't know.... I'd rather not answer that, if you don't mind.

D. Act out the situation.

Your paper has been accepted by the Organizing Committee. Today you are given the floor to present your research data. The time limit is six minutes. Make your presentation.

Make a presentation about your research work using questions below as a plan.

1. What Institute (faculty) did you graduate from?

2. When did you finish the University?

3. Did you carry out research work when you were a student?

4. What was the topic of your diploma?

5. What are you now? (a postgraduate or a competitor).

6. Why did you make up your mind to carry out research?

7. What field do you make your research in?

8. Who is your scientific adviser? Is he (she) a Doctor of Sciences or a Master of Sc. Ph. D.?

9. How did you come up with the topic of your thesis? What is it?

10. Why have you chosen this topic for your scientific work?

11. What is the aim of your investigations?

12. What questions are you going to consider in your thesis?

13. How much research work have you already done? ( collected the data, experiments, completed the theoretical / experimental section)

14. What is the subject- matter of your thesis?

15. Do you need to make experiments for your research?

16. How many chapters will your thesis contain?

17. What is the aim of your practical chapter?

18. What is the novelty of your research?

19. Have you already obtained any research results?

20. What method do you employ? Why?

21. Do the data/results allow you to come to any definite conclusion(s)?

22. Did you take part in any scientific conferences? Were the results of your research communicated to the conference?

23. Do you have any scientific articles published?

24. What informative periodicals do you use in your research (in Russian and in English)?

25. Do you keep in touch with other researchers in your field?

26. How often do you keep in touch with your scientific adviser?

27. Do you make reports on your research at your chair?

28. How many candidate degree exams have you already passed? How did you pass them?

29. When are you planning to defend your thesis?

30. Do you need the English language in your research work?

31. How are you going to use English in your life and work?


Writing a research paper takes a lot oftime and effort. It demands a thorough knowledge not only of the subject you are writing about, but also of the strategies for generating, verifying, substantiating and proving ideas. It is necessary to follow the structure, style, format and layout of the paper. The following guidelines will help you by providing a step-by-step explanation of the research-writing process.

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