Modern science and techniques have taught mankind at least one lesson:
1. «Nothing is impossible». Lewis Mumford (American philosopher).
2. «It is only when they go wrong that machines remind you how powerful they are». Clive James. ( Australian critic).
II. Answer the following questions:
1. What is an innovation? How do you understand this word?
2. What role do innovations play in our life? Think of some innovations that has had the greatest influence on our life?
III. You are going to read the text about the Industrial revolution. Choose from the list A-E the sentence which best summarizes each part of the text. There is one extra sentence that you do not need to use.
A. It was Louis-Augaste Blanqui who introduced the term “Industrial Revolution” in the 1830s.
B. The greatest innovations of the Industrial Revolution were made in textile industry, iron founding and the invention of a steam engine.
C. It was James Watt who invented the improved steam engine.
D. The Industrial Revolution marked a major turning point in human society: almost every aspect of daily life was eventually influenced in some way.
E. The causes of the Industrial Revolution were the increase of a workforce, less labour, intensive production in agriculture, the migration of population to cities, the development of international trade, creation of financial markets, the scientific and technological revolution.
1. The effects of the Industrial Revolution
The Industrial Revolution was a period in the late 18th and early 19th centuries when major changes in agriculture, manufacturing, production and transportation changes had a profound effect on the socioeconomic and cultural conditions in Britain. The changes subsequently spread throughout Europe, North America, and eventually the world. The Industrial Revolution marked a major turning point in human society; almost every aspect of daily life was eventually influenced in some way.
In the later part of the 1700s there occurred a transition in parts of Great Britain’s previously manual-labour-based economy towards machine-based manufacturing. It started with the mechanisation of the textile industries, the development of iron-making techniques and the increased use of refined coal. Trade expansion was enabled by the introduction of canals, improved roads and railways. The introduction of steam power (fuelled primarily by coal) and powered machinery (mainly in textile manufacturing) brought up the dramatic increases in production capacity. The development of all metal machine tools in the first two decades of the 19th century facilitated the manufacture of more production machines for manufacturing in other industries. The effects spread throughout Western Europe and North America during the 19th century, eventually affecting most of the world. The impact of this change on society was great.
The First Industrial Revolution, which began in the 18th century, merged into the Second Industrial Revolution around 1850, when technological and economic progress gained momentum with the development of steam-powered ships, railways, and later in the 19th century with the internal combustion engine and electrical power generation.
2. The term Industrial Revolution
The term Industrial Revolution applied to technological change was common in the 1830s. Louis-Auguste Blanqui in 1837 spoke of la révolution industrielle. Friedrich Engels in The Condition of the Working Class in England in 1844 spoke of «an industrial revolution, a revolution which at the same time changed the whole of civil society».
3. The causes of the Industrial Revolution
The causes of the Industrial Revolution were complicated. The Revolution was an outgrowth of social and institutional changes brought by the end of feudalism in Britain after the English Civil War in the 17th century. As national border controls became more effective, the spread of disease was lessened, thereby preventing the epidemics common in previous times. The percentage of children who lived past infancy rose significantly, leading to a larger workforce. The British Agricultural Revolution made food production more efficient and less labour-intensive, forcing the surplus population who could no longer find employment in agriculture into cottage industry, for example weaving, and in the longer term into the cities and the newly developed factories. The colonial expansion of the 17th century with the accompanying development of international trade, creation of financial markets and accumulation of capital are also cited as factors, as is the scientific revolution of the 17th century.
The presence of a large domestic market should also be considered an important driver of the Industrial Revolution, particularly explaining why it occurred in Britain.
4. The greatest innovations of the Industrial Revolution
The beginning of the Industrial Revolution is closely linked to a small number of innovations, made in the second half of the 18th century. These innovations were made in textile industry, iron founding and the invention of a steam engine.
Read the text about the development of a steam engine and fill in the chart below:
|Inventor||Invention||Year of invention|
|1. James Watt||a) vacuum and pressure water pump||b) the turn of the 19th century|
|2. Thomas Savery||c) high pressure non-condensing steam engine||d) 1778|
|3. Richard Trevithick and Oliver Evans||e) improved steam engine||f) 1698|
The improved steam engine invented by James Watt was initially mainly used for pumping out mines, but from the 1780s was applied to power machines. This enabled rapid development of efficient semi-automated factories on a previously unimaginable scale in places where waterpower was not available.
The development of the stationary steam engine was an essential early element of the Industrial Revolution; however, for most of the period of the Industrial Revolution, the majority of industries still relied on wind and water power as well as horse and man-power for driving small machines.
The first real attempt at industrial use of steam power was due to Thomas Savery in 1698. He constructed and patented in London a low-lift combined vacuum and pressure water pump, that generated about one horsepower (hp) and was used as in numerous water works and tried in a few, but it was not a success since it was limited in pumping height and prone to boiler explosions.
A fundamental change in working principles was brought about by James Watt. He had succeeded by 1778 in perfecting his steam engine, which incorporated a series of radical improvements, notably the closing off of the upper part of the cylinder thereby making the low pressure steam drive the top of the piston instead of the atmosphere, use of a steam jacket and the celebrated separate steam condenser chamber. All this meant that a more constant temperature could be maintained in the cylinder and that engine efficiency no longer varied according to atmospheric conditions. These improvements increased engine efficiency by a factor of about five, saving 75% on coal costs.
Nor could the atmospheric engine be easily adapted to drive a rotating wheel, although Wasborough and Pickard did succeed in doing so towards 1780. However by 1783 the more economical Watt steam engine had been fully developed into a double-acting rotative type, which meant that it could be used to directly drive the rotary machinery of a factory or mill. Both of Watt’s basic engine types were commercially very successful, and by 1800, the firm Boulton & Watt had constructed 496 engines, with 164 driving reciprocating pumps, and 308 powering mill machinery; most of the engines generated from 5 to 10 hp (7.5 kW).
The development of machine tools, such as the lathe, planing and shaping machines powered by these engines, enabled all the metal parts of the engines to be easily and accurately cut and in turn made it possible to build larger and more powerful engines.
Until about 1800, the most common pattern of steam engine was the beam engine, built as an integral part of a stone or brick engine-house, but soon various patterns of self-contained portative engines (readily removable, but not on wheels) were developed, such as the table engine. Towards the turn of the 19th century, the Cornish engineer Richard Trevithick, and the American, Oliver Evans began to construct higher pressure non-condensing steam engines, exhausting against the atmosphere. This allowed an engine and boiler to be combined into a single unit compact enough to be used on mobile road and rail locomotives and steam boats.
Plan your topic as follows:
The field which you major in and the title of your future thesis
I work in the field of ....
My major interest is in the field of....
My scientific research deals with the problems of... which is in the field of....
The title of my future thesis is....
I work under the guidance of professor...
My tutor is ....
The research I am doing now is a part of a bigger work./ within the framework of the academic research conducted by professor.../a group of scientists...
This work is devoted to an important problem into which too few scientists have researched until now.
Earlier studies of this subject show that the problem has not been yet properly explored.
Words and word combinations
analysis – анализ, исследование, подробное рассмотрение critical analysis — критический анализ
advanced research – перспективные исследования
basic research – фундаментальные исследования
to be engaged in research – заниматься научно-исследовательской работой
This research covers a wide field – исследование охватывает широкую область
after the study of the matter – после изучения этого вопроса …
humane studies – гуманитарные науки
history and allied studies – история и родственные ей предметы
pilot study предварительное, экспериментальное исследование
desk study чисто теоретическое исследование
thorough examination – а) всестороннее исследование; б) тщательное изучение (материала)
to carry on an investigation – проводить исследовательскую работу
the scientific method of inquiry –научный метод исследования
My study deals with the problems of.../ is devoted to the investigation of...
It touches upon the problems of...
The main purpose / goal / aim of it is...to find out / to define / to characterize / explore / to investigate / to analyze / to gain /.....
It is aimed at .....
I set myself a task to / of...
the tasks that face us / that we are faced with / are as follows....
Its objectives are the following:
we must apply .... to finding a solution – мы должны применить...., чтобы решить эту задачу
comparative [experimental] method of investigation – сравнительный [экспериментальный] метод исследования
his method is to compare different versions – его метод состоит в сопоставлении разных вариантов
there are several methods of doing this – существует несколько способов сделать это
ampliative inference – индуктивный метод
a method that is attended by some risk – метод, связанный с некоторым риском
convenient method – подходящий метод
to approximate to a solution of the problem – подходить к решению задачи
To use ... approach(to) – подход
interdisciplinary approach м – подход с точки зрения различных наук
We began the work by collecting material – Мы начали работу со сбора материала
we have two problems before us – перед нами две задачи
data for study – материал исследования
laboratory data – данные лабораторных исследований
adequacy of data – достоверность данных
acceptance of a theory – согласие с какой-л. теорией
application of a theory in actual practice – применение теории в практической деятельности
the backbone of a theory – основа теории
to back up a theory with facts – подкрепить теорию фактами
to construct a theory – создать теорию (see construct II)
the results of the experiment contradicted this theory./agreed with the theory – результаты опыта шли вразрез с этой теорией / согласовывались с теорией