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Give reasons for each of your answers.

Can you add any more recommendations as to letter-writing?

«Golden Rules» For Writing Letters

1. Give your letter a heading – it will help the заголовок

reader to see at once what you're writing about.

2. Decide what you are going to say before you

start to write or dictate. In other words, always

try to plan your letter ahead.

3. Use short sentences. предложения

4. Put each separate idea in a separate

paragraph. Numbering each paragraph may help

the reader to understand it better.

5. Use short words that everyone can


6. Think about your reader. Your reader ...

... must be able to see exactly what you mean: быть в состоянии

your letter should be clear;

must receive all the necessary information:

your letter should be complete;

might be a busy person with no time to waste:

your letter should be concise(краткий);

must be addressed in a sincere, polite tone:

your letter should be courteous(учтивый);

may get a bad impression if there are

mistakes in grammar, punctuation and spelling:

your letter should be correct .

International business correspondence can take various forms. Not only letters, but faxes and electronic mail messages (e-mail) are being used more and more.

You should take good care of their layout they should be well-organized to produce a good impression on the receiver.

It's worth mentioning that the style of faxes and e-mail is more informal than that of business letters. Nevertheless one should admit that business letters themselves have recently changed a lot becoming less formal and old-fashioned. But the difference between formal and informal correspondence is still essential.

Unit II


Text A


I. Read the text and find answers to the following questions.

1. What are engineers responsible for?

2. How is engineering defined?

3. What skills should an engineer have?

Engineers are responsible for some of the greatest inventions and technology the world depends on. Everything from space shuttles to air conditioning systems and bridges requires the work of an engineer. To be successful in the field of engineering, one must have certain qualities. Some of those top qualities include:

1. Possesses a Strong Analytical Aptitude:A great engineer has excellent analytical skills and is continually examining things and thinking of ways to help things work better. They are naturally inquisitive.

2. Shows an Attention to Detail:A great engineer pays great attention to detail. The slightest error can cause an entire structure to fail, so every detail must be reviewed thoroughly during the course of completing a project.

3. Has Excellent Communication Skills:A great engineer has great communication skills. They can translate complex technical lingo into plain English and also communicate verbally with clients and other engineers working together on a project.

4. Takes Part in Continuing Education:A great engineer stays on top of developments in the industry. Changes in technology happen rapidly, and the most successful engineers keep abreast of new research and ideas.

5. Is Creative:A great engineer is creative and can think of new and innovative ways to develop new systems and make existing things work more efficiently.

6. Shows an Ability to Think Logically:A great engineer has top-notch logical skills. They are able to make sense of complex systems and understand how things work and how problems arise.

7. Is Mathematically Inclined:A great engineer has excellent math skills. Engineering is an intricate science that involves complex calculations of varying difficulty.

8. Has Good Problem Solving Skills:A great engineer has sharp problem solving skills. An engineer is frequently called upon solely to address problems, and they must be able to figure out where the problem stems from and quickly develop a solution.

9. Is a Team Player:A great engineer understands that they are part of a larger team working together to make one project come together successfully, and therefore, must work well as part of that team.

10. Has Excellent Technical Knowledge:A great engineer has a vast amount of technical knowledge. They understand a variety of computer programs and other systems that are commonly used during an engineering project.

II. Give Russian equivalents to the following Russian words and word combinations.

1) to be responsible for a) сложная наука
2) communication skills b) принимать участие
3) to fail c) решать проблему
4) the slightest error d) происходить
5) to pay attention e) сложные вычесления
6) to take part in f) умение общаться
7) intricate science g) потерпеть неудачу
8) complex calculations h) уделять внимание
9) to solve a problem i) отвечать за что-либо
10) to stem from j) самая незначительная ошибка

III. Match a word in A with its synonym in B:

  A   B
1) to require a) to occur
2) to complete b) to apply
3) complex c) often
4) to happen d) rapidly
5) to use e) to demand
6) frequently f) to finish
7) quickly g) difficult
8) error h) to have
9) to possess i) aptitude
10) ability j) mistake

IV. Read the text again and find English equivalents to the following Russian words and word combinations .

1) умение общаться

2) закончить проект

3) тщательно проверять, просматривать

4) постоянно исследовать

5) изменения происходят быстро

6) идти в ногу с чем-либо

7) разрабатывать новые системы

8) осмысливать сложные системы

9) как возникают проблемы

10) различной трудности

V. Match the words with their definitions :

1) engineer a) to make changes, to introduce new ideas
2) research b) a good characteristic or feature
3) skill c) a skilled person who designs, builds or maintain engines, machines, bridges, etc.
4) quality d) the ability to do smth. well
5) to innovate e) careful study or investigation in order to discover new facts or information

VI. Speak about engineering skills using these prompts :

– excellent analytical skills;

– to examine things;

– great communication skills;

– to take part in continuing education;

– to keep abreast of new research and ideas;

– to think of new innovative ways;

– to develop new systems;

– to understand how things work and how problems arise;

– to be mathematically inclined;

– to have sharp problem solving skills;

– to work well as part of the team;

– to have a vast a amount of technical knowledge.

Text B


As an engineer you’ll learn a lot of new skills that are specific to engineering and to your specialism, but there are some skills that are helpful for all engineers.

IT skills

General IT skills are important for any career. At most universities, there’ll be plenty of opportunities to pick these up: for example, university libraries or IT departments often offer short, free training courses. As an engineer, you might also work with more specialist software, such as CAD/CAM packages. You might have the opportunity to use software like this as part of your degree, but being generally familiar and comfortable with computers will make it easier for you to understand pick up new software if you need to.

Communication skills

As an engineer, it’s vital for you to be able to communicate effectively with the people you work with. A miscommunication could mean a disaster! There are plenty of simple ways to improve your communication, and you might also be able to take a communication skills course. However, the most important thing is to practice. Getting involved with any kind of group activitywill help with your communication skills.


Maths skills are vital to engineering – not just to get you on the job, but as part of the skills you’ll use at work, too. Putting in the effort to make sure you understand the maths you need will save you a lot of stress in the long run!

Organization and time management skills

Engineering courses are very intensive and are likely to involve big projects that require you to manage your own time effectively. You might be able to get through the course without good time management skills, but you won’t have a good time doing it!

Problem solving

Engineering is all about finding solutions to problems. You might find this comes naturally, but there are techniques you can use to make it easier:

· Get specific:You might think you know what the problem is, but are you being specific enough? This is important for problems as simple as a broken toaster: you can’t fix it until you know whether the problem is a blown fuse, a short circuit or something else. You might even realize that the problem isn’t what you thought it was.

· Break the problem down:One big problem might be made up of smaller problems. Smaller problems are easier to think about, and you might find that solving one problem helps you to solve another.

· Talk to someone:Explaining it to someone else can make it clear what’s important and what isn’t. If there’s nobody around to talk to, try writing the explanation out.

There are lots of resources and methods on the Internet to help you with problem solving, but the most important thing to do is practice. Remember, these skills work in all sorts of situations: if you approach every problem you come across using these techniques, they’ll become second nature – and you might find your life gets easier, too!

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