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English painting and its main representatives

It has often been said that the Renaissance came late to England, in contrast to Italy and the other states of continental Europe; it is also a truism that the fine arts in England during the Tudor and Stuart eras were dominated by foreign and imported talent—from Hans Holbein the Younger under Henry VIII to Anthony van Dyck under Charles I. Yet within this general trend, a native school of painting was developing. In Elizabeth's reign, Nicholas Hilliard (ca. 1547–1619), the Queen's "limner and goldsmith," is the most widely recognized figure in this native development; but George Gower (1540–1596) has begun to attract greater notice and appreciation, as knowledge of him and his art and career has improved. [13]England is exceptionally late, among the wealthier regions of western Europe, in developing a native school of artists of sufficient distinction for their names to survive. The exquisite Wilton Diptych, dating from the 1390s, may have been painted in England (its origin is uncertain), but it has no national characteristics (being classed in the International Style) and it is anonymous. From the period when the great Renaissance masters are at work in Italy, the Netherlands or Germany, there is no English artist whose name survives. When English kings and nobles want their portrait painted, they look to continental Europe for someone with the necessary skills.By far the most distinguished painter to fulfil this function is Hans Holbein, who spends thirteen years in England between 1526 and 1543. Holbein provides the images by which we know members of the Tudor court, and in particular Henry VIII himself. He also profoundly influences John Bettes, the first English portrait painter whose name has come down to us.

2 English architecture The style of architecture known as Elizabethan ranged from the late 1500's throughout the 1600's. The Renaissance started in Italy in the 1400's but affected England at a later time. The first significant architectural factor from this period was that the traditional building of churches stopped and the building of houses began. The countryside began to reform itself from small farmhouses to great houses which featured gothic styles and Renaissance detail. These houses were built by powerful statesmen, successful merchants, and the enriched gentry to express their wealth. The most distinctive feature in these great houses was the use of classical symmetry. This was the Elizabethan visual expression of order and harmony. An example of this use of symmetry is found in Hardwick Hall, located in Derbyshire. This two-story building, designed by Robert Smythson, was mirrored in a shape of an 'H', which gave the hall a perfect sense of balance. [2].\Externally, these Elizabethan styles of houses have many different features. The mixture of unusually tall buildings and towers made for an effective skyline. The estates of these great houses consisted of beautiful gardens, large stables, and sometimes halls were not attached to the main house. From far away one could see the grand, grid-shaped windows, which were conceived from the idea of the pre-Renaissance churches. From them, light flooded into the rooms, conveying this use of glass in a way that undoubtedly made for one of the country houses' most notable features.

Music

Woman’s facion

Sports

9The period of Enlightenment.

"Age of Reason" redirects here. For other uses, see Age of Reason (disambiguation).

Title page of volume one of the Encyclopédie

The Age of Enlightenment(or simply the Enlightenmentor Age of Reason ) was an elite cultural movement of intellectuals in 18th century Europe, that sought to mobilize the power of reason, in order to reform society and advance knowledge. It promoted science and intellectual interchange and opposed superstition[1], intolerance and abuses in church and state. Originating about 1650–1700, it was sparked by philosophers Baruch Spinoza (1632–1677), John Locke (1632–1704), Pierre Bayle (1647–1706), mathematician Isaac Newton (1643–1727) and historian Voltaire (1694–1778). Ruling princes often endorsed and fostered figures and even attempted to apply their ideas of government in what was known as Enlightened Despotism. The Enlightenment flourished until about 1790–1800, after which the emphasis on reason gave way to Romanticism's emphasis on emotion and a Counter-Enlightenment gained force.

The centre of the Enlightenment was France, where it was based in the salons and culminated in the great Encyclopédie (1751–72) edited by Denis Diderot (1713–1784) with contributions by hundreds of leading philosophes (intellectuals) such as Voltaire (1694–1778), Rousseau (1712–1778) and Montesquieu (1689–1755). Some 25,000 copies of the 35 volume set were sold, half of them outside France. The new intellectual forces spread to urban centres across Europe, notably England, Scotland, the German states, the Netherlands, Russia, Italy, Austria, and Spain, then jumped the Atlantic into the European colonies, where it influenced Benjamin Franklin andThomas Jefferson, among many others, and played a major role in the American Revolution. The political ideals influenced the American Declaration of Independence, the United States Bill of Rights, the French Declaration of the Rights of Man and of the Citizen, and the Polish–Lithuanian Constitution of May 3, 1791.

England

John Locke was one of the most influential Enlightenment thinkers. He influenced other thinkers such as Rousseau, Voltaire, among others. "He is one of the dozens or so thinkers who are remembered for their influential contributions across a broad spectrum of philosophical subfields--in Locke's case, across epistemology, the philosophy of language, the philosophy of mind, metaphysics, rational theology, ethics, and political philosophy." He is known today for his liberalism in political theory. The main goal that most people remember about him is his famous words of " Life, Liberty and Property." With property he stated that it is a natural right derived from labor. He was more of a positive Enlightenment thinker and often disagreed with others that related to Thomas Hobbes.

10Queen’s powers.

The Queen's power is primarily honorary. She or any reigning monarch, cannot enter the House of Commons, Parliament, unless she is invited as a guest. Prime Ministers often seek the Queen's advice and they must go to her when they wish to dissolve Parliament. One of the reasons for the distinction is that the Queen is the titular head of the Church of England., and a definite separation of church and state is maintained.
The Queen and other monarchs before her are always kept up to date on political issues.
I tend to be a monarchist. I see the monarchy in Great Britain as the solid enduring base on which Britain and what's left of the commonwealth can stand and survive. In times of great turmoil, the politicians can make the tough decisions with quiet diplomacy with the monarch, but the monarch is called upon to show the grounded strength that is Great Britain and, by doing so, to ease the fears of the people.
Is it worth the stipend paid to the monarch? You bet.
I am sure others would disagree. But I see how hard the Royal Family works for charities, etc., and I wouldn't want to work that much.
Britain has a Constitutional Monarchy. It is not the kind of monarchy where the reigning king or queen is the government.
Given today's politics...is a Republic really better? Government in Great Britain continues to work quite well with it's Parliament and Monarch.

11Wales it’s economy and emblem.

Wels is the second largest city of the state of Upper Austria, located in the north of Austria, on the Traun River near Linz. It is not part of its surrounding Wels County (Bezirk Wels-Land), but a so-called Statutarstadt (independent city). However, Wels is the county seat of Wels-Land. Economy

There are about 36,000 people employed in Wels. Of that, about 63% are in the service sector. Wels is known as an important city for shopping and the location of several gymnasiums (grammar school) and higher vocational schools and also of a vocational college. Furthermore, it is famous for the Wels Fair, which takes place every two years in the autumn.

Emblem

Like most nations, Wales has a few emblems.

The Leek, Daffodils, Welsh Dragon, and the Prince's 'three feathers' symbol.


The Red Dragon is the heraldic symbol of Wales, and is incorporated into the Welsh national flag.

According to tradition, the red dragon appeared on a crest born by Arthur, whose father, Uthr Bendragon, had seen a dragon in the sky predicting that he would be king.

The dragon as a symbol was probably introduced into Britain by the Roman legions. Medieval Welsh poets often compared their leaders to dragons in poems praising their bravery, for example, Gruffydd ab yr Ynad Coch said of Llewelyn ap Gruffudd Pen dragon, pen draig oedd arnaw ('A dragon's head he had').

Between 1485 and 1603, the dragon formed part of the arms of the Tudor dynasty, but it was replaced on the royal coat of arms with a unicorn by order of James I.

The red dragon reappeared as the royal badge for Wales in 1807, and from then on it was often seen in the regalia of Welsh patriotic societies. At the suggestion of the Gorsedd of the Bards, it was officially recognised by the Queen in 1959, and is now widely used as the national flag.

The leek and the daffodil

Both the sixth-century poet Taliesin and the thirteenth-century Red Book of Hergest extol the virtues of the leek, which, if eaten, encouraged good health and happiness. Small wonder, therefore, that a national respect grew around this plant, which was worn by the Welsh in the Battle of Crecy, and by 1536, when Henry VIII gave a leek to his daughter on 1 March, was already associated with St David's Day. It is possible that the green and white family colours adopted by the Tudors were taken from their liking for the leek.

In comparison with the ancient Welsh associations of the leek, the daffodil has only recently assumed a position of national importance. An increasingly popular flower during the 19th century, especially among women, its status was elevated by the Welsh-born prime minister David Lloyd George, who wore it on St David's Day and used it in ceremonies in 1911 to mark the investiture of the Prince of Wales at Caernarfon.

12Judiciary system of UK.

HOW UK LAW IS CLASSIFIED
A distinction is made between public law, which governs the relationship between individual citizens and the state, and private law, which governs relationships between individuals and private organisations.

For practical purposes, the most significant distinction is between civil law and criminal law.
Civil law covers such areas as contracts, negligence, family matters, employment, probate and land law.

Criminal law, which is a branch of public law, defines the boundaries of acceptable conduct. A person who breaks the criminal law is regarded as having committed an offence against society as a whole.

HOW CIVIL LAW IS ENFORCED IN ENGLAND AND WALES
A person who believes that another individual or organisation has committed a civil wrong can complete a claim form and send it to the appropriate court. The County Court, which is based at over 200 locations, deals with most claims involving less than £25,000 and claims for less than £50,000 that involve injury to a person. The High Court, which is in London, hears most higher-value cases. In the County and High Courts, each case is heard by a single judge.

The person who starts a civil case is called a claimant, and he or she has the burden of proving that, more probably than not, the other party (the defendant) committed a civil wrong. If the claimant is successful, the usual remedy is damages: a sum of money paid by the defendant to the claimant. Other remedies, such as a court order that prohibits a person from behaving in a certain way, are available in some circumstances.

Either party to a civil case may appeal to a higher court against the decision.
HOW CRIMINAL LAW IS ENFORCED IN ENGLAND AND WALES

A person who believes that a crime has been committed contacts the police, who conduct an investigation. If, after arresting and interviewing a person, the police believe that he or she committed the crime, that individual is charged. A report of the case is then sent to the Crown Prosecution Service (CPS).

If the CPS believes that the case has a reasonable prospect of success, and that it would be in the public interest to do so, it will start criminal proceedings against the suspect, who becomes the defendant in the case. In court, the CPS bears the burden of proving, beyond reasonable doubt, that the defendant committed the crime.

Minor offences, such as speeding, are heard by Magistrates’ Courts. Many towns in England and Wales have their own Magistrates’ Court, where cases are heard by three magistrates. Magistrates do not need any legal qualifications, and they are advised by a Clerk, who is a qualified lawyer. Magistrates do not state reasons for their decisions.

Very serious offences, such as murder and rape, are heard in the Crown Court. The Crown Court is based in about 90 centres throughout England and Wales. A jury consisting of 12 people chosen at random from the local population will decide, without giving reasons, whether the defendant is guilty of the offence. Usually a jury’s decision will be unanimous, but the judge may decide that an 11:1 or 10:2 majority is sufficient. The jury is advised about the law by the judge, whose role also includes imposing a sentence if the defendant is found guilty.

Some intermediate offences, such as theft, may be tried in a Magistrates’ Court or the Crown Court.
The sentences available for criminal offences include fines (payment of a sum of money to the state), imprisonment and community punishments such as unpaid supervised work.

The United Kingdom does not have a single legal system due to it being created by the political union of previously independent countries with the terms of the Treaty of Union guaranteeing the continued existence of Scotland's separate legal system. Today the UK has three distinct systems of law: English law, Northern Ireland law and Scots law. Recent constitutional changes saw a new Supreme Court of the United Kingdom come into being in October 2009 that took on the appeal functions of the Appellate Committee of the House of Lords.[19] The Judicial Committee of the Privy Council, comprising the same members as the Supreme Court, is the highest court of appeal for several independent Commonwealth countries, the UK overseas territories, and the British crown dependencies.

13The government of GB (it’s formation and functions).

The government runs the country. It has responsibility for developing and implementing policy and for drafting laws. It is also known as the Executive.

When a election winning party does not have enough of the % vote to govern/rule on its own - that party will look for another party (that they can get along with) who with there % vote (added together) will give the winning party an overall % 'working' marjority.

When that happens all sorts of deals are done 'behind the scenes' - the smaller party demanding this or that for there agreement - incuding positions in the ruling winning parties government appointments.

Its always trouble when this happens because if the minority party withdraws its support (as sometimes they do) the ruling government party will collapse and another election will have too be called.!!

All government parties have to have a working % majority - if not they will be out voted on issues all the time and will not survive.

Functions.

The Prime Minister

As head of the UK government, the Prime Minister oversees the operation of the Civil Service and government agencies, appoints members of the Cabinet, and is the principal government figure in the House of Commons. The Prime Minister is also, by tradition, the First Lord of the Treasury – and draws his or her salary in that role, rather than as Prime Minister.

The Prime Minister's unique position of authority comes from majority support in the House of Commons and the power to appoint and dismiss ministers. By modern convention, the Prime Minister always sits in the Commons.

The Prime Minister presides over the Cabinet, is responsible for allocating functions among ministers and, at regular meetings with the Queen, informs her of the general business of the government.

The Prime Minister's other responsibilities include recommending a number of appointments to the Queen. These include high-ranking members of the Church of England, senior judges and certain civil appointments. He also recommends appointments to several public boards and institutions, as well as to various royal and statutory commissions.

The Prime Minister's Office supports him in his role as head of government. This includes providing policy advice, tracking the delivery of government commitments and initiatives, and ensuring effective communications to Parliament, the media and the public.

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The Cabinet

The Cabinet is the committee at the centre of the British political system and the supreme decision-making body in government.

The British Prime Minister has traditionally been referred to as ‘primus inter pares’, which means ‘first among equals’ and demonstrates that he or she is a member of the collective decision-making body of the Cabinet, rather than an individual who has powers in their own right. The Prime Minister is first among equals simply in recognition of the responsibility held for appointing and dismissing all the other Cabinet members.

Cabinet ministers are the highest-ranking ministers in the government, and most government departments have one Cabinet minister (or more). Most Cabinet ministers are titled ‘Secretary of State’ – although some have traditional titles, such as the Chancellor of the Exchequer and the Chief Whip.

Britain as Roman Province.

Roman Britainwas the part of the island of Great Britain controlled by the Roman Empire from AD 43 until ca. AD 410.[1]

The Romans referred to the imperial province as Britannia, which eventually comprised all of the island of Great Britain south of the fluid frontier with Caledonia (Scotland). Before the Roman invasion, begun in AD 43, Iron Age Britain already had established cultural and economic links with Continental Europe, but the Roman invaders introduced new developments in agriculture, urbanisation, industry and architecture. Besides the native British record of the initial Roman invasion, Roman historians generally mention Britannia only in passing, thus, most knowledge of Roman Britain has derived from archaeological investigations, and the epigraphic evidence lauding the Britannic achievements of an Emperor of Rome, such as Hadrian (r. AD 117–38) and Antoninus Pius (r. AD 138–61), whose walls demarcated the northern borders of Roman Britain.[2]

The first extensive Roman campaigns in Britain were by the armies of Julius Caesar in 55 and in 54 BC,[3][4] but the first significant campaign of conquest did not begin until AD 43, in the reign of the Emperor Claudius.[5] Following the conquest of the native Britons, a distinctive Romano-British culture emerged under provincial government, which, despite steadily extended territorial control northwards, was never able to exert definite control over Caledonia. The Romans demarcated the northern border of Britannia with Hadrian's Wall, completed around the year 128.[6] Fourteen years later, in AD 142, the Romans extended the Britannic frontier northwards, to theForth-Clyde line, where they constructed the Antonine Wall,[7] but, after approximately twenty years, they then retreated to the border of Hadrian's Wall.[8] Around the year 197, Rome divided Britannia into two provinces, Britannia Superior and Britannia Inferior;[9] sometime after AD 305, Britannia was further divided, and made into an imperial diocese.[10] For much of the later period of the Roman occupation, Britannia was subject to barbarian invasions and often came under the control of imperialusurpers and pretenders to the Roman Emperorship.

Most Romans departed from Britain around the year 410, which began the sub-Roman period (AD 5–6 c.), but the legacy of the Roman Empire was felt for centuries in Britain.

Roman invasion

Roman rule is established

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