1. Для выражения длительного действия, которое начнется до определенного момента в будущем и всё еще будет совершаться в этот момент. Момент совершения действия может быть указан:
a) обозначениями времени, такими как at five o’clock в пять часов, at noon в полдень, at midnight в полночь, at that moment в этот момент и т.п.:
e.g. I will still be working at six o’clock. - Я еще буду работать в шесть часов.
b) другим будущим действием, выраженным глаголом в Present Simple в придаточном предложении времени и условия:
e.g. When I come back, they will be having supper. - Когда я вернусь, они будут ужинать.
2. Для выражения длительного действия, которое будет совершаться в определенном отрезке времени в будущем, хотя и не обязательно непрерывно в течении всего этого отрезка:
e.g. I will be preparing for my examination in May. - Я буду готовиться к экзамену в мае.
Future Continuous употребляется иногда наряду с Future Simple с таким обозначением времени, как all day long весь день, all day tomorrow завтра весь день, all the time всё время, the whole evening весь вечер, from five till six с пяти до шести и т.п. При употреблении Future Continuous говорящий изображает действие как процесс, а при употреблении Future Indefinite он лишь констатирует факт совершения действия:
e.g. He will be reading the whole evening. - He will read the whole evening. - Он будет читать весь вечер.
3. Future Continuous употребляется также для выражения действия недлительного характера. В этом значении Future Continuous употребляется (вместо Future Simple), когда выражается намерение совершить действие или когда речь идет о заранее намеченном действии. В этом случае Future Continuous переводятся на русский язык будущим временем как глагола несовершенного, так и совершенного вида:
e.g. He will be meeting us at the station. - Он будет встречать (встретит) нас на вокзале.
Союзами называются служебные слова, которые употребляются для соединения членов предложения и предложений. Они не выполняют самостоятельной функции в предложениях и поэтому не являются членами предложения.
По своей функции речи союзы делятся на сочинительные и подчинительные. 1. Сочинительные союзы соединяют однородные члены предложения, а также независимые друг от друга предложения:
e.g. I have received a letter and a telegram. - Я получил письмо и телеграмму.
Go at once or you will miss your train. - Идите немедленно, иначе вы не поспеете на поезд.
2. Подчинительные союзы соединяют придаточные предложения с главным:
e.g. I can’t do it now because I am very busy. - Я не могу делать это сейчас, потому что я очень занят.
По своей форме союзы в английском языке делятся на простые и составные.
1. Простые союзы: and и, а, but но, if если, that что и др.
2. Составные союзы (сочетания, выполняющие функцию союзов): as well as так же как, so that, in order that чтобы, для того чтобы, as soon as только и др.
Некоторые составные союзы являются двойными, так как распадаются на две части: both…and как …так и, not only …but also не только …но и, either …or или…или, neither…nor ни…ни, hardly (scarcely) …when едва только … как, no sooner … than как только, едва только…как, whether…or ли …или.
I. Conjugate the following verbs in Past Continuous Tense:
to work, to answer, to make, to look, to translate, to read.
II. Comment on the use of Past Continuous Tense:
1. It was raining when I left the house. 2. He hurt his leg while he was playing football. 3. In June that firm was carrying on negotiations for the purchase of fish. 4. I was working in the library from three till five. 5. She was reading as book at 8 o’clock yesterday.6. They were writing a test at 11 o’clock yesterday. 7. We were working in our lab at 10 o’clock. 8. He was preparing for the English test when his sister came. 9. They were discussing the results of their test from 11 to 12 o’clock yesterday. 10. They were translating texts the whole evening yesterday.
III. Make the following sentences interrogative then negative:
1. I was doing my homework from five till eight yesterday. 2. I was doing the exercise at six o’clock yesterday. 3. They were translating the text the whole evening yesterday. 4. He was writing a massage to his friend. 5. My friends and I were playing computer games yesterday.
IV. Open the brackets using the verbs in Present or Past Continuous:
1. I (to write) an English exercise now. 2. I (to write) an English exercise at this time yesterday. 3. My friends (not to do) their homework now. The (to play) volleyball. 4. My friends (not to do) their homework at seven o’clock yesterday. They (to play) football. 5. She (to read) the whole evening yesterday. 6. She (not to read) now. 7. My sister is fond of reading. She (to read) the whole evening yesterday, and now she (to read) again. 8. What your lecturer (to do) now? 9. What your group (to do) from eight till nine yesterday.
V. Open the brackets using the verbs in Past Continuous or Past Simple:
1. I (to do) my homework the whole evening yesterday. 2. I (to do) my homework when mother came home. 3. I (to do) my homework yesterday. 3. You (to do) your homework yesterday? 4. You (to do) your homework from eight till ten yesterday? 5. What he (to do) the whole evening yesterday? 6. Yesterday at one o’clock I (to have) lunch at the canteen. 7. When he (to come) in, I (to do) my exercises.8. We (to answer) the teacher’s questions when the dean (to enter) the classroom. 9. We (to listen) to an interesting lecture yesterday. 10. When I (to enter) the classroom, the teacher (to write) words on the blackboard and the students (to copy) them into their exercise books.
VI. Translate the following sentences from Russian into English:
1. Мы писали контрольную работу с 8 до 10 часов. 2. Преподаватель проверял тетради студентов целый вечер вчера. 3. Мой друг переводил текст «Наш университет», когда я пришел к нему. 4. Что ты делал вчера с 8 до 9 часов? – Я выполнял домашнее задание по английскому языку. 5. Когда я вошёл в актовый зал, на сцене выступала команда преподавателей. 6. Мы повторяли правила, когда в аудиторию вошёл преподаватель. 7. В то время когда Саша и Вася рассказывали диалог, раздался звонок. 8. Когда преподаватель открыл дверь аудитории, все студенты сидели за своими партами.
VII. Comment on the use of Future Continuous Tense:
1. He can’t come at two o’clock tomorrow because he will be giving a lesson at that time. 2. I will be working when he returns. 3. If you come after eleven o’clock, I will be sleeping. 4. He will be writing a book during the summer. 5. In June that firm will be carrying on negotiations for the purchase of fish. 6. I will be preparing for my examination all day tomorrow. 7. They will be working in the library from three till five. 8. I will be writing to him tomorrow.
VII. Give the answers to the following questions using words in brackets:
e.g. What will you be doing at 10 o’clock in the evening? (sleep)
I will be sleeping at that time.
1. What will Kate be doing at her college for five years? (study English). 2. What will he be doing next term? (study the second foreign language). 3. What will Ann be doing on Sunday? (prepare for the lesson). 4. What will they be doing at this time tomorrow? (write dictation) 5. What will Mr. Priestley be doing at this time the day after tomorrow? (interview foreign students) 6. What will you be doing during your holiday? (travelling along the country)
VIII. Open the brackets using Future Simple or Future Continuous:
1. I (to do) my homework tomorrow. 2. I (to do) my homework at six o’clock tomorrow. 3. Tomorrow I (to begin) doing my homework as soon as I come from the university. I (to do) my homework from tree till six. 4. When I come home tomorrow my family (to have) supper. 5. When you come to my place tomorrow, I (to read) your book. 6. Don’t come to my place tomorrow. I (to write) a composition the whole evening.
IX. Translate the following sentences from Russian into English:
1. Студенты технологического факультета будут представлять университет на конференции. 2. Мы будем принимать участие в соревнованиях с 10 до 12 завтра. 3. Студенты будут пересказывать завтра текст с 8 до 8.30. 4. Завтра весь вечер мы будем готовиться к контрольной работе. 5. Студенты морского факультета будут проходить практику с 20 июня по 15 июля.
X. Translate from Russian into English paying attention to the use of conjunctions:
1. He will be here either at 6 or at 7.
2. Ann likes neither fried nor boiled fish.
3. The manager is either at the office or at the laboratory.
4. We can reach America either by air or by sea.
5. He had no time and translated neither the text nor the article.
6. Both Newton and Byron studied at Cambridge.
7. A specialist should master both theory and practice of his subject.
8. Both Tom and Ann were late.
9. Neither Tom nor Ann came to the party.
10. Either you apologize or I’ll never speak to you again.
XI. Make sentences using both…and, neither…nor, either…or:
1. The hotel wasn’t clean. And it wasn’t comfortable.
2. It was a very boring film. It was very long too.
3. I haven’t got the time to go on holiday. And I haven’t got the money.
4. We can leave today or we can leave tomorrow – whichever you prefer.
5. He gave up his job because he needed a change. Also because the pay was low.
6. George doesn’t smoke. And he doesn’t drink.
7. The front of the house needs painting. The back needs painting too.
XII. Choose the right conjunction:
1. … Jane … John like to go mountain bike riding.
d) not only...but also
2. You need to decide … you want to go to the movies … to the park today.
d) not only...but also
3. Every day during the winter it is …raining … snowing.
d) not only...but also
4. Today, …was it raining … snowing.
d) not only...but also
5. I decided to purchase … the white shirt … the green shirt, but not both.
d) not only...but also
6. … the boss … the manager wanted to admit there was a problem in the company.
d) not only...but also
7. … were you late for class … forgot to do your homework.
d) not only...but also
8. You need to decide if you want to go to … this college … that college.
d) not only...but also
9. She was not sure … she wanted to travel to Japan … travel to Thailand.
d) not only...but also
10. … is the food in this restaurant awful … the prices are way too high.
d) not only...but also
I. Read the text and find answers to the following questions:
1) In which country is this city located?
2) What is the population of the city?
3) Who was the founder of the city?
Wellington is the capital of New Zealand. New Zealand is a land of national parks and natural reserves. It is also known for its hilly terrain. It takes one of the first places in sheep-breeding.
The population of Wellington is about 180,000. The city is famous for its beautiful scenery with mountains, green hillsides, parks, and forests. Mountain hills are so near to the city that some of the streets and roads run up and down them. On one of the hills there is a botanical garden - a very popular place among the public. Wellington is a culturally diverse city. It is home to the Maori tribe - the native tribe to New Zealand.
Wellington was chosen in 1839 because of its central location and suitable harbor. It is a very sunny city: it gets more sunshine than Melbourne in Australia. The Cook Strait, where Wellington is situated, is known for b winds. As a result, Wellington is sometimes called "Windy City". The city was named in honor of Arthur Wellesley, the first Duke of Wellington. Arthur Wellesley was a victor of the Battle of Waterloo. His title comes from the town of Wellington in the county of Somerset, England. Wellington became the capital of New Zealand in 1865. There are some challenges that the city is facing: it is located in the seismic zone and there is a lack of free spaces. But scientists found the way out: high-storey buildings are built with the use of special foundations.
II. How are citizens of the city called?
How are citizens of the country called?
III. Make up sentences with the following words and word combinations:
|Tropical climate||Sparse snowfall|
|Mild climate||Record high temperature|
|High humidity||Record low temperature|
|Abundant rainfall||Degrees Celsius|
|Wind speed||Degrees Fahrenheit|
|Hours of sunshine||Latitude|
IV. Learn about sister-cities and write down the country:
V. Make up your own dialogues using the following questions about New Zealand and Wellington:
a) What is New Zealand famous for?
b) What do you know about the native people of New Zealand?
c) Is Wellington the largest city in New Zealand?
d) Is Wellington a city of sunshine or a city of winds?
e) New Zealand consists of two islands. On which island Wellington situated?
f) What is the Wellington Cable Car?
g) What is celebrated on February 6?
ORAL SPEECH PRACTICE
I study at the Kerch State Maritime Technological University. Our university was established in 1984. The university trains specialists for the fishing industry. It has two departments day-time and extra-mural. There are three faculties at our university: technological, marine and the faculty for improvement of professional skills.
The technological faculty trains economists, book-keepers, technologists, ecologists and engineers for the seafood processing industry. Future navigators, marine engineers, electricians and fishery biologists study at the marine faculty.
In order to become well-trained engineer students study different subjects, such as: Mathematics, Physics, and Chemistry, Foreign languages, descriptive geometry and many other special subjects. Students attend lectures, work at the labs, have lessons and seminars.
Our university has many laboratories which are equipped with modern devices. According to the curriculum there is planned practice for every student of our university.
The course of studies lasts five years. The academic year has two terms: autumn and spring. At the end of each we take examinations. At present fishing industry occupies prominent position in the national economy.
Post-graduate courses were opened in 1997. Research projects are being conducted at all chairs of the university. They include automatization of production processes various types of fish treatment; processing operations; flexible manufacturing systems, different problems of the national economy.
establish - основывать
extra-mural - заочный
book-keeper - бухгалтер
be equipped - быть оборудованным
curriculum - курс обучения, учебный план
prominent position - выдающееся положение
research projects - научно-исследовательские проекты
1. Where do you study?
2. How many faculties are there?
3. Whom does the university train?
4. What subject do students study?
5. What research projects are being carried out?
6. How are the laboratories equipped?
7. How long does the course of study last?
8. Are there two terms in the academic year?
9. When were post graduate courses opened?
THE ENGLISH IANGUACE
English is spoken practically all over the world. It is spoken as the mother tongue in Great Britain, the United States of America, Canada, Australia and New Zealand. A lot of people speak English in China, Japan, India, Africa and other countries. It is one of 6 official languages of the United Nations. It is studied as a foreign language in many schools.
England's history helps to understand the present condition of English. Many English words were borrowed from the language of Angles and Saxons. Hundreds of French words came into English. These French words didn't crowd out corresponding Anglo-Saxon words. There exist «act» and «deed», «beautiful» and «pretty», «form» and «shape».
Many new words were brought by traders and travelers. These words came from all parts of the world: «umbrella» - from Italian, «skates» - from Dutch, «tea» - from Chinese, «cigar» - from Spanish.
Some words came into English directly from Latin, which was the language of the church and the universities in the Middle Ages.
Some of the English words of today are derivatives. One way of creating new words is to put together two or more older English words. For example, the words «railway», «football», «newspaper» are made in this way.
Many of the new English words - especially new scientific ones - have been made from Latin and, Greek words instead of English ones. «Telephone» for instance, was made from Creek words «far» and «talk».
mother tongue – родной язык
United Nations – Организация Объединённых Наций
to borrow – заимствовать
Angles and Saxons – англы и саксы
to crowd out – вытеснять
to exist – существовать
trader – купец
directly – непосредственно
derivative – производное слово
1. In what countries is English spoken as the mother tongue?
2. From what languages are some English words borrowed?
3. Did French words crowd out corresponding Anglo-Saxon ones?
4. What English words that came from all parts of the world do you know?
5. Why are there so many words with Latin roots in the English language?
6. What ways of creating new words do you know?
HOW DO I LEARN ENGLISH
Nowadays it’s very important to know a foreign language. Knowledge of foreign language helps us to develop friendship and understanding among people.
The total number of languages in the world is from 2500 to 5000. English is spoken all over the world and very popular. “Do you speak English?” – with this phrase begins the conversation between two people, that speak different languages and want to find a common language. It’s very good when you hear: “Yes, I do”, and start talking. People of different countries and nations have to get along well with the progress in the world trade and technology as well as with each other.
I study English, because I want to read English books of great writers in the original. I want to communicate with people from different countries; I want to understand their culture and traditions. I like to travel. Speaking English I can travel everywhere, because more then 1 billion people speak English.
How do I learn English? First of all I read a lot. There is always an English book on my desk. I’m trying to learn few new words every day. To remember words better I put them into groups. For example: believe – believer – belief – disbelieve. I listen to songs in English and try to recognize the words. I have some tapes and video-tapes in English. I like to watch different satellite TV programs in English.
I like studying English.
conservation – разговор
common – общий
world trade – мировая торговля
to get along with – ладить, уживаться
necessary – необходимый
total – общий
to communicate – общаться
satellite – спутник
1. Why is it necessary to speak English?
2. Is it difficult for you to learn English?
3. Is English popular nowadays?
4. How do you learn English?
5. Is it useful to learn a foreign language?
EDUCATION IN BRITAIN
In England and Wales compulsory school begins at the age of five, but before that age children can go to a nursery school, also called play school. School is compulsory till the children are 16 years old.
In Primary School and First School children learn to read and write and the basis of arithmetic. In the higher classes of Primary School (or in Middle School) children learn geography, history, religion and, in some schools, a foreign language. Then children go to the Secondary School.
When students are 16 years old they may take an exam in various subjects in order to have a qualification. These qualifications can be either G.C.S.E. (General Certificate of Secondary Education) or «O level» (Ordinary level). After that students can either leave school and start working or continue their studies in the same school as before. If they continue, when they are 18, they have to take further examinations which are necessary for getting into university or college.
Some parents choose private schools for their children. They are very expensive but considered to provide a better education and good job opportunities.
In England there are 47 universities, including the Open University which teaches via TV and radio, about 400 colleges and institutes of higher education. The oldest universities in England are Oxford and Cambridge. Generally, universities award two kinds of degrees: the Bachelor's degree and the Master's degree.
compulsory – обязательный
nursery school – детский сад
exam – экзамен
subject – предмет
university – университет
private – частный
opportunity – возможность
to award – давать, присваивать
bachelor – бакалавр
master - магистр
1. When does compulsory school begin?
2. How long does a child stay in compulsory school?
3. What subjects do children learn in Primary School?
4. What kind of exam do students have to take when they are 16?
5. Do students have to leave school at the age of 16 or to continue their studies?
6. How do private schools differ from the regular ones?
7. What is the Open University?
8. What kinds of degrees do universities award?